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Associations of Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality with Metabolic Syndrome in Hemodialysis Patients: A Prospective Single-Center Study

1
Faculty of Medicine, University of Niš, 18000 Niš, Serbia
2
Clinic for Nephrology, Clinical Center Niš, 18000 Niš, Serbia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2019, 55(10), 694; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100694
Received: 25 September 2019 / Revised: 9 October 2019 / Accepted: 14 October 2019 / Published: 16 October 2019
Background and objectives: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors, such as abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension, that together increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients have multiple comorbidities and many metabolic disorders, causing the frequent occurrence of metabolic syndrome. The goal of this study was to assess the prevalence of MetS in HD patients, and its association with all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality. Patients and methods: A total of 138 HD patients were included in this prospective study. We analyzed demographic, anthropometric and biochemical data. Outcome measures were all-cause and CV mortality during the three-year follow-up. Results: MetS was diagnosed in 57.24% of enrolled patients. During the 36 months of follow-up, 33 patients died. MetS patients showed a significantly higher mortality rate than non-MetS (30.4% versus 16.36%, p < 0.001). The association of different MetS components with cardiovascular mortality reached significance when a minimum of three components were present (1.81 (95% confidence interval CI = 1.21–2.33)), with a grouped increase in effect size for subjects with four or five MetS components. Subjects with MetS exhibited nearly twice as high risk for all-cause (hazard ratio HR = 1.99 (95%CI) = 1.42–2.97) and 2.5 times for CV (HR = 2.51 (95%CI) = 1.25–3.83) mortality compared with those without MetS, after adjustment for age, gender, and cardiovascular disease. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that MetS is widespread in HD patients. In future, the focus must be on an active screening approach, and treatment of cardiometabolic risk factors, aiming to reduce mortality. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolic syndrome; hemodialysis; cardiovascular; mortality metabolic syndrome; hemodialysis; cardiovascular; mortality
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Dimitrijevic, Z.; Jovanovic, A.; Cvetkovic, M.; Vrecic, T.; Kostic, E.; Mitic, B. Associations of Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality with Metabolic Syndrome in Hemodialysis Patients: A Prospective Single-Center Study. Medicina 2019, 55, 694.

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