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Medicina, Volume 55, Issue 10 (October 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Polymorphisms of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Relation to APOE Epsilon 4 and Risk of Alzheimer’s Disease in the Lithuanian Population
Medicina 2019, 55(10), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100689 (registering DOI) - 15 Oct 2019
Abstract
Background and objective: Neuroinflammation is one of the pathological pathways of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), mediating the progression of neurodegeneration. Polymorphisms of proinflammatory cytokines have been linked to increased AD risk. Identification of certain combinations of polymorphisms could help predict disease in its [...] Read more.
Background and objective: Neuroinflammation is one of the pathological pathways of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), mediating the progression of neurodegeneration. Polymorphisms of proinflammatory cytokines have been linked to increased AD risk. Identification of certain combinations of polymorphisms could help predict disease in its preclinical stage. The aim of the study was to evaluate differences in the prevalence of TNFα –850T (rs1799724), IL1A –889T (rs1800587), and IL6 –174C (rs1800795, Intron type) polymorphisms between AD patients and healthy controls (HC) and determine the impact of these SNPs in combination with the APOEε4 allele on AD risk. Materials and Methods: The study population is comprised of 107 patients with sporadic AD (AD group) and age- and gender-matched 110 persons without impaired cognitive functions (control group). TNFα –850C > T polymorphism was revealed by a PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. Real time PCR was used for IL1A and IL6 SNP genotyping. APOEε genotyping was done via hybridization method. Results: The frequencies of TNFα –850T, IL1A –889T, IL6 –174C allele and genotype did not differ between the AD and HC groups (p > 0.05). IL6 –174C was not in HWE, and it was not analysed further. APOEε4 allele (p = 0.001) and 3/4 and 4/4 genotypes (p = 0.005) were more prevalent in AD patients. APOEε4 carriage increased the risk of AD (OR 2.65, p = 0.001), while TNFα –850T and IL1A –889T polymorphisms were not found as significant independent risk factors for AD. The presence of at least one IL1A –889T allele in combination with APOEε4+ was associated with a lower risk of AD (OR 2.24, p = 0.047) than the carriage of APOEε4+ alone (OR 2.70, p = 0.015). Conclusions: No significant differences of TNFα –850, IL1A –889, and IL6 –174 polymorphisms frequencies were found between AD and control groups. In APOEε4 carriers IL1A –889T polymorphism was found to reduce the AD risk determined by APOEε4 alone. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Screen Use During Meals Among Young Children: Exploration of Associated Variables
Medicina 2019, 55(10), 688; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100688 - 14 Oct 2019
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Abstract
Background and Objectives: There is evidence that eating meals or snacks while watching TV is an obesogenic factor. Moreover, the patterns of TV and other screen use during meals begin early and persist. However, there are only a few studies to date which [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: There is evidence that eating meals or snacks while watching TV is an obesogenic factor. Moreover, the patterns of TV and other screen use during meals begin early and persist. However, there are only a few studies to date which address the prevalence and predictors of young children’s exposure to screen during mealtimes. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and the associated factors of screen use during meals in early childhood. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted in Lithuania. Data of 847 children aged 2 to 5 years old (51.5% boys) were analyzed in this study. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1½-5) and reported their children’s daily screen time, exposure to background TV, screen use during child’s meals, child and parental height and weight, and sociodemographic data. Results: More than half of children were exposed to screen during meals: 33.7% occasionally, several times per week or per month, and 22%—daily or during every meal. Overall daily screen time, background TV, consumption of junk food, child age, and emotional and behavioral problems were related to mealtime screen use (all associations significant at p < 0.01). Longer daily screen time (OR 1.01; 95% CI 1.00–1.01), more background TV (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.10–1.45), and elder child age (OR 1.02; 95% CI 1.00–1.03) were significant predictors of occasional use of screen during meals. Also, longer daily screen time (OR 0.99; 95% CI 0.98–0.99), background TV (OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.66–0.91) together with no siblings’ status of a child (OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.25–0.69) increased the probability that children were fed in front of screens daily. Conclusions: This study confirmed the unfavorable associations among screen use during meals, daily screen time and junk food consumption in early childhood. In addition, first-time parents should get particular health providers’ attention as they are more likely to use screens during child’s mealtime. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Epidemiology of Heart Disease of Uncertain Etiology: A Population Study and Review of the Problem
Medicina 2019, 55(10), 687; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100687 - 14 Oct 2019
Viewed by 82
Abstract
Background and objectives: Previous epidemiological studies have identified a group of heart diseases (here called heart diseases of uncertain etiology—HDUE) whose characteristics were rather different from cases classified as coronary heart disease (CHD), but frequently confused with them. This analysis had the purpose [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Previous epidemiological studies have identified a group of heart diseases (here called heart diseases of uncertain etiology—HDUE) whose characteristics were rather different from cases classified as coronary heart disease (CHD), but frequently confused with them. This analysis had the purpose of adding further evidence on this issue based on a large population study. Materials and Methods: Forty-five Italian population samples for a total of 25,272 men and 21,895 women, free from cardiovascular diseases, were examined with measurement of some risk factors. During follow-up, CHD deaths were those manifested as myocardial infarction, other acute ischemic attacks, and sudden death of probable coronary origin, after reasonable exclusion of other causes. Cases of HDUE were those manifested only as heart failure, chronic arrhythmia, and blocks in the absence of typical coronary syndromes. Cox proportional hazards models were computed separately for CHD and HDUE, with 11 risk factors as possible predictors. Results: During an average of 7.4 years (extremes 1–16) there were 223 CHD and 150 HDUE fatal events. Male sex, age, smoking habits, systolic blood pressure, serum cholesterol, and plasma glucose were significantly and directly related to CHD events, while high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol was so in an inverse way. The same risk factors were predictive of HDUE events except serum cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. Multivariable hazards ratio of serum cholesterol (delta = 1 mmol/L) was higher in the CHD model (1.24, 95% CI 1.11–1.39) than in the HDUE model (1.03, 0.5% C.I. 0.89–1.19) and the difference between the respective coefficients was statistically significant (p = 0.0444). Age at death was not different between the two end-points. Conclusions: CHD and HDUE are probably two different morbid conditions, only the first one is likely bound to gross atherosclerotic lesions of coronary arteries and linked to blood lipid levels. We reviewed the problem in epidemiological investigations and addressed inflammation as a potential cofactor to differentiate between CHD and HDUE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heart Failure and Inflammation)
Open AccessArticle
Foreign Body Ingestion in Pediatrics: Distribution, Management and Complications
Medicina 2019, 55(10), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100686 - 14 Oct 2019
Viewed by 77
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Foreign body (FB) ingestion is a common problem in children, causing serious complications. This study aimed to identify the distribution of types and locations of these foreign bodies and create Chiang Mai University (CMU) Guidelines. Materials and Methods: A [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Foreign body (FB) ingestion is a common problem in children, causing serious complications. This study aimed to identify the distribution of types and locations of these foreign bodies and create Chiang Mai University (CMU) Guidelines. Materials and Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted. All patients under 15 years old with foreign body ingestion (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems; ICD-10 codes T18) treated in CMU Hospital from January 2006 to December 2017 were included. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The guidelines were created, which paralleled the standard guidelines. Results: In total, 194 episodes of FB ingestion were recorded. These included 53.6% males and 46.4% females with a median age of 43.5 months. A history of foreign body ingestion complaints occurred in 77.8% of cases. Presentation was divided into asymptomatic (44.3%) and symptomatic (55.7%). The most common symptom was vomiting (23.2%). In the majority of cases, foreign bodies were located in the esophagus (37%). The most common type of foreign body was a coin (41.2%). Management included spontaneous passing (60.3%), endoscopy (35.6%), and others (3.1%). Complications before treatment were recorded in 9.3% of cases and after treatment in 2.1% of cases. Conclusions: Foreign body ingestion is common among children younger than four years old. Coins are the most common foreign body found, and the esophagus is the most common location. We recommend our created CMU Guidelines for management. Full article
Open AccessReview
Effects of Physical Exercise on the Stereotyped Behavior of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders
Medicina 2019, 55(10), 685; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100685 - 14 Oct 2019
Viewed by 126
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Recent studies have shown the existence of a positive relationship between physical exercise, symptomatic improvement, and reduction of damage caused by comorbidities associated with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in children, adolescents, and adults. The aim of this [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Recent studies have shown the existence of a positive relationship between physical exercise, symptomatic improvement, and reduction of damage caused by comorbidities associated with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) in children, adolescents, and adults. The aim of this systematic review with meta-analysis (SRM) was to estimate the effects of physical exercise (PE) on the stereotyped behaviors of children with a diagnosis of ASD in intervention studies. Materials and Methods: The design followed the PRISMA guidelines and the TREND statement to assess the quality of information in each study. Nine non-randomized intervention trial studies with low, moderate, and vigorous physical exercise, with a duration varying from 8 to 48 weeks and a frequency of 3 times a week, were included in the SRM. The dependent variable episodes of stereotypical behaviors was analyzed in all studies and assessed as the number of episodes demonstrated by the child in pre- versus post-exercise intervention conditions. Results: The eight studies included a total 129 children (115 males and 14 females) with an average age of 8.93 ± 1.69 years. Children with ASD showed a reduction of 1.1 in the number of occurrences of stereotypical behaviors after intervention with physical exercise. Conclusion: Evidence was found to support physical exercise as an effective tool in reducing the number of episodes of stereotypical behaviors in children diagnosed with ASD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children with Complex Presentations)
Open AccessReview
Oral Immunotherapy (OIT): A Personalized Medicine
Medicina 2019, 55(10), 684; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100684 - 13 Oct 2019
Viewed by 148
Abstract
Oral Immunotherapy (OIT), a promising allergen-specific approach in the management of Food Allergies (FA), is based on the administration of increasing doses of the culprit food until reaching a maintenance dose. Each step should be adapted to the patient, and OIT should be [...] Read more.
Oral Immunotherapy (OIT), a promising allergen-specific approach in the management of Food Allergies (FA), is based on the administration of increasing doses of the culprit food until reaching a maintenance dose. Each step should be adapted to the patient, and OIT should be considered an individualized treatment. Recent studies focused on the standardization and identification of novel biomarkers in order to correlate endotypes with phenotypes in the field of FA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Allergies)
Open AccessArticle
Clostridium difficile Infection and Colorectal Surgery: Is There Any Risk?
Medicina 2019, 55(10), 683; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100683 - 10 Oct 2019
Viewed by 213
Abstract
Background and objectives: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is an important healthcare-associated infection, with important consequences both from a medical and financial point of view, but its correlation with anastomotic leaks after colorectal surgeries is scarcely reported in the literature. Materials and Methods: We [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is an important healthcare-associated infection, with important consequences both from a medical and financial point of view, but its correlation with anastomotic leaks after colorectal surgeries is scarcely reported in the literature. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study looking for patients who underwent open or laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancers between January 2012 and December 2017, excluding emergency surgeries for complicated colorectal tumors. We also examined patient history for risk factors for CDI such as age, sex, comorbidities, and clinical findings at admission or during hospital stay as well as tumor characteristics. Results: A total of 360 patients were included in the study, out of which 320 underwent surgeries that included anastomoses. There were 19 cases of anastomotic leaks, out of which 13 patients were diagnosed with CDI, with a statistic significance for association between CDI and anastomotic leakage (p < 0.0001). Most patients who developed both CDI and anastomotic leaks had left-sided resections or a type of rectal resection, while none of the patients with right-sided resections had this association, but with no statistical significance possibly due to the limited number of cases. Conclusions: CDI is a relevant risk factor and should be taken into consideration when trying to prevent anastomotic leaks in patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery for colon or rectal cancer. Thorough assessment of risk factors at admission should be mandatory in order to adequately prepare the patient and plan an optimal course of treatment. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings and a multidisciplinary approach, with a team which should always include the surgeon, is mandatory when it comes to CDI prevention. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Controlled Release of Metformin Hydrochloride from Core-Shell Nanofibers with Fish Sarcoplasmic Protein
Medicina 2019, 55(10), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100682 - 10 Oct 2019
Viewed by 175
Abstract
Background and Objectives: A coaxial electrospinning technique was used to produce core/shell nanofibers of a polylactic acid (PLA) as a shell and a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) containing metformin hydrochloride (MH) as a core. Materials and Methods: Fish sarcoplasmic protein (FSP) was [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: A coaxial electrospinning technique was used to produce core/shell nanofibers of a polylactic acid (PLA) as a shell and a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) containing metformin hydrochloride (MH) as a core. Materials and Methods: Fish sarcoplasmic protein (FSP) was extracted from fresh bonito and incorporated into nanofiber at various concentrations to investigate the influence on properties of the coaxial nanofibers. The morphology, chemical structure and thermal properties of the nanofibers were studied. Results: The results show that uniform and bead-free structured nanofibers with diameters ranging from 621 nm to 681 nm were obtained. A differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis shows that FSP had a reducing effect on the crystallinity of the nanofibers. Furthermore, the drug release profile of electrospun fibers was analyzed using the spectrophotometric method. Conclusions: The nanofibers showed prolonged and sustained release and the first order kinetic seems to be more suitable to describe the release. MTT assay suggests that the produced drug and protein loaded coaxial nanofibers are non-toxic and enhance cell attachment. Thus, these results demonstrate that the produced nanofibers had the potential to be used for diabetic wound healing applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nano-Biosciences in the Field of Health-Care)
Open AccessArticle
Long-Term Saccharin Consumption and Increased Risk of Obesity, Diabetes, Hepatic Dysfunction, and Renal Impairment in Rats
Medicina 2019, 55(10), 681; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100681 - 09 Oct 2019
Viewed by 189
Abstract
Background and objectives: This study evaluated the effect of chronic consumption of saccharin on important physiological and biochemical parameters in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were used in this study and were divided into four groups: A control group and three [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: This study evaluated the effect of chronic consumption of saccharin on important physiological and biochemical parameters in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were used in this study and were divided into four groups: A control group and three experimental groups (groups 1, 2, and 3) were treated with different doses of saccharin at 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, respectively. Each experimental group received sodium saccharin once per day for 120 days while the control group was treated with distilled water only. In addition to the evaluation of body weight, blood samples [total protein, albumin, glucose, lipid profile, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine, and uric acid] and urine (isoprostane) were collected in zero time, and after 60 and 120 days for biochemical evaluation. Liver (catalase activity) and brain (8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine, 8-OHdG) tissues were collected at time zero and after 120 days. Results: The data showed that saccharin at 5 mg/kg increased body weight of treated rats after 60 (59%) and 120 (67%) days of treatment. Increased concentration of serum glucose was observed after treatment with saccharin at 5 (75% and 62%) and 10 mg/kg (43% and 40%) following 60 and 120 days, respectively. The concentration of albumin decreased after treatment with saccharin at 2.5 (34% and 36%), 5 (39% and 34%), and 10 mg/kg (15% and 21%) after 60 and 120 days of treatment, respectively. The activity of LDH and uric acid increased proportionally with dosage levels and consumption period. There was an increased concentration of creatinine after treatment with saccharin at 2.5 (125% and 68%), 5 (114% and 45%), and 10 mg/kg (26% and 31%) following 60 and 120 days, respectively. Catalase activity and 8-OHdG increased by 51% and 49%, respectively, following 120 days of treatment with saccharin at 2.5 mg/kg. Elevation in the concentration of isoprostane was observed after treatment with saccharin at all doses. Conclusions: The administration of saccharin throughout the treatment period was correlated with impaired kidney and liver function. Both hyperglycemic and obesity-inducing side effects were observed. There was an increased oxidative status of the liver, as well as exposure to increased oxidative stress demonstrated through the increased levels of isoprostane, uric acid, 8-OHdG, and activity of catalase. Therefore, it is suggested that saccharin is unsafe to be included in the diet. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reinforced Olive Pâté as a Source of Antioxidants with Positive Effects on Young Smokers
Medicina 2019, 55(10), 680; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100680 - 09 Oct 2019
Viewed by 142
Abstract
Background and objectives: Olive pâté (OP) is an olive-derived product with potentially beneficial effects on human health due to the presence of natural antioxidants. The present dietary supplementation study aimed to evaluate the effects on blood antioxidant levels of an olive pâté [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Olive pâté (OP) is an olive-derived product with potentially beneficial effects on human health due to the presence of natural antioxidants. The present dietary supplementation study aimed to evaluate the effects on blood antioxidant levels of an olive pâté reinforced with natural antioxidants (ROP) recovered from olive mill waste. Materials and methods: Ninety-eight healthy volunteers (M = 54, 55%, age 18–25) were divided into two groups: A (n = 49), practicing three or more days of physical activity a week, and B (n = 49), practicing less than two. Each group was split into two subgroups, receiving dietary supplementation with OP or ROP. The status of smoker was also recorded, and a biological antioxidant potential (BAP) test was performed on each subject. Results: The BAP values increased with both OP (n = 30) and ROP (n = 68) but ROP supplementation showed higher increments (736.9 μmol/L) than OP (339.6). The increment was significantly higher for smokers (n = 15), 1122.9 vs. non-smokers (n = 53), 635.7, with values in percent of baseline, respectively, 34.6% and 16.2% (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The ROP nutritional supplementation appears useful to increase antioxidant activity, with better effect in smokers; further studies should confirm the finding and investigate its biological bases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complementary and Integrative Medicine)
Open AccessArticle
Analysis of Road Traffic Accidents in Turkey between 2013 and 2017
Medicina 2019, 55(10), 679; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100679 - 09 Oct 2019
Viewed by 116
Abstract
Background and objectives: Road traffic accident (RTAs) is one of the top ten leading causes of death worldwide and its incidence is higher in developing countries. In this study, our aim was to determine the characteristics of RTAs in Turkey and make recommendations [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Road traffic accident (RTAs) is one of the top ten leading causes of death worldwide and its incidence is higher in developing countries. In this study, our aim was to determine the characteristics of RTAs in Turkey and make recommendations to reduce mortality and morbidity related to RTAs. Material and Methods: We obtained our data, which cover the years 2013 to 2017, from the database accessible at the official website of the Turkish Statistical Institute, which permits the use of its data for research purposes. The chi-square test was used for statistical analysis, and the percentage distribution and odds ratios were calculated. Results: In the study period, a total of 697,957 RTAs occurred in Turkey. A total of 1,168,121 individuals have been wounded and 3534 of them have lost their lives. The majority of RTAs occurred on weekends and in summer months. Male individuals are more likely to be exposed to death and injuries related to accidents. When the vehicle type is considered, motorcycle drivers are under more risk for RTAs. RTAs are more likely to occur in rural areas. Conclusion: Male individuals and motorcyclists are under a great risk for RTAs. Strict laws are mandatory in order to reduce morbidity and mortality related to RTAs. Additionally, educational efforts must focus on two-wheelers and tractor drivers, particularly in developing countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trauma care)
Open AccessEditorial
Psychological Factors in Dental Patient Care: Odontophobia
Medicina 2019, 55(10), 678; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100678 - 08 Oct 2019
Viewed by 141
Abstract
Dentistry and oral health are at the heart of the systemic health of humans. Often this branch of medicine is underestimated either due to socioeconomic reasons or due to fear. In fact, in dentistry, there is often a widespread condition of odontophobia among [...] Read more.
Dentistry and oral health are at the heart of the systemic health of humans. Often this branch of medicine is underestimated either due to socioeconomic reasons or due to fear. In fact, in dentistry, there is often a widespread condition of odontophobia among patients. A clinician’s knowledge of this condition, and an accompanying understanding of how to successfully manage it, is surely one of the first steps to gaining a patient’s trust and maintaining his or her patronage. Being able to manage a dental phobic patient in the best way is the key to successful therapy. Psychological techniques often have to work alongside dentistry in managing these patients. A future perspective concerns precisely the implementation of non-invasive practices such as hypnosis in the management of the latter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health: Economic and Psychological–Behavioral Implications)
Open AccessArticle
Association among Executive Function, Physical Activity, and Weight Status in Youth
Medicina 2019, 55(10), 677; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100677 - 08 Oct 2019
Viewed by 123
Abstract
Background and objectives: Executive function (EF) is an umbrella term that encompasses the set of higher-order processes. Core EFs are inhibition, interference control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. The aim of the study was to compare the EF between normal weight (NW) [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Executive function (EF) is an umbrella term that encompasses the set of higher-order processes. Core EFs are inhibition, interference control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. The aim of the study was to compare the EF between normal weight (NW) and inactive overweight (OW), NW and sport trained (ST), ST and OW 16–19-year-old youths. In addition, the relationship between EF and peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) was evaluated. Materials and Methods: 10 NW, 14 ST, and 10 OW youths participated in this study. EF was evaluated using the ANAM4 battery. VO2peak was measured during an increasing walking exercise (modified Balke test). Results: The NW youths demonstrated better visual tracking and attention (94.28% ± 3.11%/90.23% ± 2.01%), response inhibition (95.65% ± 1.83%/92.48% ± 1.05%), speed of processing, and alternating attention with a motor speed component (95.5% ± 3.51%/89.01% ± 4.09%) than the OW youths (p < 0.05). The ST youths demonstrated better visual tracking and attention (96.76% ± 1.85%/90.23% ± 2.01%), response inhibition (97.58% ± 0.94%/92.48% ± 1.05%), speed of processing, and alternating attention with a motor speed component (98.35% ± 1.35%/89.01% ± 4.09%) than the OW youths (p < 0.05). The ST youths demonstrated better EF results than NW youths (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The ST 16–19-year-old youths demonstrated better EF than their OW and NW peers. The NW youths demonstrated better EF than their OW peers. There was a significant correlation between VO2peak and EF indicators in all groups of participants. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
Oral Health: The First Step to Well-Being
Medicina 2019, 55(10), 676; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100676 - 07 Oct 2019
Viewed by 177
Abstract
Scientific research in the medical field shows this constantly: health starts from the mouth. Having good oral health nowadays is not only aimed at tooth health, but as amply demonstrated in the literature, it is a starting point for the general health and [...] Read more.
Scientific research in the medical field shows this constantly: health starts from the mouth. Having good oral health nowadays is not only aimed at tooth health, but as amply demonstrated in the literature, it is a starting point for the general health and well-being of our body. Retracing the latest scientific findings that demonstrate an interpolation between oral health, oral diseases, and systemic complications, literature support was brought to this manuscript. Oral health, as demonstrated, has potentially multi-organ systemic implications, and as the results of the recent literature demonstrate, these implications range from an insulin resistance, due to a periodontal disease, up to far more complex multi-organ systemic complications involving the cardiovascular system or even neurodegenerative pathology. Therefore, being able to improve oral health could have great systemic implications for the organism, for the prevention of pathologies, and therefore for society and for the quality of life in individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health: Economic and Psychological–Behavioral Implications)
Open AccessArticle
Association of Higher Advanced Oxidation Protein Products (AOPPs) Levels in Patients with Diabetic and Hypertensive Nephropathy
Medicina 2019, 55(10), 675; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100675 - 07 Oct 2019
Viewed by 262
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HT) are characterized by cell damage caused by inflammatory and metabolic mechanisms induced by alteration in reduction-oxidative status. Serum advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) are new markers of protein damage induced by oxidative stress. We [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HT) are characterized by cell damage caused by inflammatory and metabolic mechanisms induced by alteration in reduction-oxidative status. Serum advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) are new markers of protein damage induced by oxidative stress. We evaluated serum levels of AOPP in a cohort of patients with DM and HT, with or without renal complications, compared with a control healthy population. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 62 patients with type 2 DM and 56 with HT. The 62 patients affected by DM were further distinguished in 24 subjects without renal impairment, 18 with diabetic nephropathy (DN), 20 with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 2–3 secondary to DN. The subgroup of 56 patients with primary HT comprised 26 subjects without renal complications and 30 with CKD (stage 2–3) secondary to HT. Thirty healthy controls, matched for age and sex, were recruited among blood donors. Results: Increased AOPP levels were found in DM patients compared with healthy subjects, although not significantly. This index was higher and more significant in patients with DN and CKD secondary to DN than in DM patients without nephropathy (p < 0.05) or controls (p < 0.0001). Patients with HT and with kidney impairment secondary to HT also had significantly higher AOPP serum levels than controls (p < 0.01 and p < 0.0001, respectively). There were no significant differences in mean AOPP levels among DM and HT patients. Conclusion: Our study showed that oxidative stress was higher in diabetic or hypertensive subjects than in healthy controls and, in particular, it appeared to be more severe in patients with renal complications. We suggest that the assessment of AOPP in diabetic and hypertensive patients may be important to predict the onset of renal failure and to open a new perspective on the adoption of antioxidant molecules to prevent CKD in those settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate and Insulin Metabolism in Chronic Kidney Disease)
Open AccessArticle
Contributions of the Left and the Right Hemispheres on Language-Induced Grip Force Modulation of the Left Hand in Unimanual Tasks
Medicina 2019, 55(10), 674; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100674 - 06 Oct 2019
Viewed by 287
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Language-induced grip force modulation (LGFM) can be used to better understand the link between language and motor functions as an expression of embodied language. However, the contribution of each brain hemisphere to LGFM is still unclear. Using six different [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Language-induced grip force modulation (LGFM) can be used to better understand the link between language and motor functions as an expression of embodied language. However, the contribution of each brain hemisphere to LGFM is still unclear. Using six different action verbs as stimuli, this study evaluated the grip force modulation of the left hand in a unimanual task to characterize the left and right hemispheres’ contributions. Materials and Methods: Left-hand LGFM of 20 healthy and consistently right-handed subjects was evaluated using the verbs “to write”, “to hold”, “to pull” (left-lateralized central processing actions), “to draw”, “to tie”, and “to drive” (bihemispheric central processing actions) as linguistic stimuli. The time between the word onset and the first interval of statistical significance regarding the baseline (here as reaction time, RT) was also measured. Results: The six verbs produced LGFM. The modulation intensity was similar for the six verbs, but the RT was variable. The verbs “to draw”, “to tie”, and “to drive”, whose central processing of the described action is bihemispheric, showed a longer RT compared to the other verbs. Conclusions: The possibility of a given manual action being performed by the left hand in consistent right-handers does not interfere with the occurrence of LGFM when the descriptor verb of this action is used as a linguistic stimulus, even if the possibility is remote. Therefore, LGFM seems to mainly rely on the left hemisphere, while a greater activation of the right hemisphere in action processing appears to slow the increase in LGFM intensity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Metastatic Lymph Node Ratio (mLNR) is a Useful Parameter in the Prognosis of Colorectal Cancer; A Meta-Analysis for the Prognostic Role of mLNR
Medicina 2019, 55(10), 673; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100673 - 04 Oct 2019
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Abstract
Background and objectives: The presenting study aimed to elucidate the prognostic role of the metastatic lymph node ratio (mLNR) in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), using a meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: Using data from 90,274 patients from 14 eligible studies, we performed a [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: The presenting study aimed to elucidate the prognostic role of the metastatic lymph node ratio (mLNR) in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), using a meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: Using data from 90,274 patients from 14 eligible studies, we performed a meta-analysis for the correlation between mLNR and survival rate. Besides, subgroup analyses were performed, based on tumor stage, tumor location, and mLNR. Results: A high mLNR showed significant correlation with worse overall survival and disease-free survival rates in CRC patients (hazard ratio (HR), 1.617, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.393–1.877, and HR 2.345, 95% CI 1.879–2.926, respectively). In patients with stage III, who had regional LN metastasis, the HRs were 1.730 (95% CI 1.266–2.362) and 2.451 (95% CI 1.719–3.494) for overall and disease-free survival, respectively. According to tumor location, rectal cancer showed a worse survival rate when compared to colon cancer. In the analysis for overall survival, when mLNR was 0.2, HR was the highest across the different subgroups (HR 5.040, 95% CI 1.780–14.270). However, in the analysis for disease-free survival, the subgroup with an mLNR < 0.2 had a higher HR than the other subgroups (HR 2.878, 95% CI 1.401–5.912). Conclusions: The mLNR may be a useful prognostic factor for patients with CRC, regardless of the tumor stage or tumor location. Further studies are necessary for the detailed criteria of mLNR before its application in daily practice. Full article
Open AccessReview
Infectious Complications Following Kidney Transplantation—A Focus on Hepatitis C Infection, Cytomegalovirus Infection and Novel Developments in the Gut Microbiota
Medicina 2019, 55(10), 672; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100672 - 04 Oct 2019
Viewed by 249
Abstract
The incidence of infectious complications, compared with the general population and the pre-transplant status of the recipient, increases substantially following kidney transplantation, causing significant morbidity and mortality. The potent immunosuppressive therapy given to prevent graft rejection in kidney transplant recipients results in an [...] Read more.
The incidence of infectious complications, compared with the general population and the pre-transplant status of the recipient, increases substantially following kidney transplantation, causing significant morbidity and mortality. The potent immunosuppressive therapy given to prevent graft rejection in kidney transplant recipients results in an increased susceptibility to a wide range of opportunistic infections including bacterial, viral and fungal infections. Over the last five years, several advances have occurred that may have changed the burden of infectious complications in kidney transplant recipients. Due to the availability of direct-acting antivirals to manage donor-derived hepatitis C infection, this has opened the way for donors with hepatitis C infection to be considered in the donation process. In addition, there have been the development of medications targeting the growing burden of resistant cytomegalovirus, as well as the discovery of the potentially important role of the gastrointestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of post-transplant infection. In this narrative review, we will discuss these three advances and their potential implications for clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infections in Kidney Transplantation)
Open AccessArticle
Anthropometrical and Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Parameters in Anorexia Nervosa Patients’ Nutritional Status Assessment
Medicina 2019, 55(10), 671; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100671 - 03 Oct 2019
Viewed by 166
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Body mass index (BMI) is still the only recommended measurable nutritional status assessment parameter in anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of this study was to measure other anthropometrical and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) parameters in AN patients and to evaluate [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Body mass index (BMI) is still the only recommended measurable nutritional status assessment parameter in anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of this study was to measure other anthropometrical and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) parameters in AN patients and to evaluate their nutritional status assessment value. Materials and Methods: The 46 AN female patients were examined at the beginning of hospitalization and followed-up in three measurements (in 6 ± 2 weeks’ intervals). Anthropometrical assessment was based on BMI, circumferences of arm, calf, thigh, hips, waist, their ratio (waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)), and a skinfold test over biceps and triceps muscle, under the scapula, over the hip, and 2 cm from the umbilicus. The BIA parameters included phase angle (PA), membrane capacitance (Cm), and impedance at 200 kHz, and a 5 kHz ratio (Z200/5). Results: In the 1st measurement, BMI correlated with all anthropometric and BIA parameters (p < 0.05). For BIA parameters, the correlation included arm circumference and WHR (p < 0.05). In the follow-up, significant changes were observed in BMI and all BIA parameters. The correlation between BMI and all BIA parameters was present in the 2nd and 3rd measurements (p < 0.05). In the 4th measurement, BMI correlated only with Cm (p = 0.0114). Comparison of BIA parameters according to the state of starvation (BMI < 16.0 kg/m2) revealed that all studied BIA parameters were characterized by statistically significant sensitivity and specificity in the detection of this condition (p < 0.05), except PA in the 4th measurement (p = 0.2099). Conclusions: Selected BIA and anthropometrical parameters could be used for AN patients’ assessment. The study confirmed dynamic changes of BIA parameters during the follow-up. They could be useful in the detection of the state of starvation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Diuretic Enhanced Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of Pyeloureteral Obstruction
Medicina 2019, 55(10), 670; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100670 - 03 Oct 2019
Viewed by 104
Abstract
Background and Objectives: To determine the value of diuretic ultrasonography for the diagnosis of obstructive hydronephrosis. Materials and Methods: Diuretic enhanced ultrasonography was used routinely as a part of examination of patients with hydronephrosis in our Department. There were 72 patients [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: To determine the value of diuretic ultrasonography for the diagnosis of obstructive hydronephrosis. Materials and Methods: Diuretic enhanced ultrasonography was used routinely as a part of examination of patients with hydronephrosis in our Department. There were 72 patients (42 males, 30 females; aged 2 months to 17 years; median age 7.07 years) with a sonoscopic diagnosis of hydronephrosis included from January 2006 until October 2011. The anteroposterior diameter (AD) of renal pelvis was measured sonoscopically before and at sixty minutes after furosemide injection. A weight-adjusted dose of 1 mg/kg of furosemide was administered intravenously. Results: Patients were operated on if pyeloureteral obstruction was suspected because of low or deteriorating differential renal function, increasing hydronephrosis or symptoms thereof. Hydronephrosis was unilateral in 61 (84.7%) and bilateral in 11 (15.3%) patients. The median AD of pelvis before furosemide injection was 22 mm in operated and 17 mm in non-operated patients (p = 0.005). Sixty minutes after furosemide injection, the AD of pelvis in operated patients was 35.5 mm and 25.8 mm in non-operated—25.8 mm (p < 0.001). Logistic regression model demonstrated that significant factors for surgery were: AD 60 min after furosemide infection and ultrasonographic parenchymal sclerosis. Conclusion: Ultrasound measurement of the AD of renal pelvis 1 h after the injection of furosemide used as an additional investigation can help in predicting obstructive hydronephrosis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Hospital Size on National Trends and Outcomes Following Open Esophagectomy
Medicina 2019, 55(10), 669; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100669 - 03 Oct 2019
Viewed by 111
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Previous studies have demonstrated superior patient outcomes for thoracic oncology patients treated at high-volume surgery centers compared to low-volume centers. However, the specific role of overall hospital size in open esophagectomy morbidity and mortality remains unclear. Materials and Methods: [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Previous studies have demonstrated superior patient outcomes for thoracic oncology patients treated at high-volume surgery centers compared to low-volume centers. However, the specific role of overall hospital size in open esophagectomy morbidity and mortality remains unclear. Materials and Methods: Patients aged >18 years who underwent open esophagectomy for primary malignant neoplasia of the esophagus between 2002 and 2014 were identified using the National Inpatient Sample. Minimally invasive procedures were excluded. Discharges were stratified by hospital size (large, medium, and small) and analyzed using trend and multivariable regression analyses. Results: Over a 13-year period, a total of 69,840 open esophagectomy procedures were performed nationally. While the proportion of total esophagectomies performed did not vary by hospital size, in-hospital mortality trends decreased for all hospitals (large (7.2% to 3.7%), medium (12.8% vs. 4.9%), and small (12.8% vs. 4.9%)), although this was only significant for large hospitals (P < 0.01). After controlling for patient demographics, comorbidities, admission, and hospital-level factors, hospital length of stay (LOS), total inflation-adjusted costs, in-hospital mortality, and complications (cardiac, respiratory, vascular, and bleeding) did not vary by hospital size (all P > 0.05). Conclusions: After risk adjustment, patient morbidity and in-hospital mortality appear to be comparable across all institutions, including small hospitals. While there appears to be an increased push for referring patients to large hospitals, our findings suggest that there may be other factors (such as surgeon type, hospital volume, or board status) that are more likely to impact the results; these need to be further explored in the current era of episode-based care. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Cognition, Mood and Sleep in Menopausal Transition: The Role of Menopause Hormone Therapy
Medicina 2019, 55(10), 668; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100668 - 01 Oct 2019
Viewed by 237
Abstract
During the menopausal transition, which begins four to six years before cessation of menses, middle-aged women experience a progressive change in ovarian activity and a physiologic deterioration of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis function associated with fluctuating hormone levels. During this transition, women can suffer symptoms [...] Read more.
During the menopausal transition, which begins four to six years before cessation of menses, middle-aged women experience a progressive change in ovarian activity and a physiologic deterioration of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis function associated with fluctuating hormone levels. During this transition, women can suffer symptoms related to menopause (such as hot flushes, sleep disturbance, mood changes, memory complaints and vaginal dryness). Neurological symptoms such as sleep disturbance, “brain fog” and mood changes are a major complaint of women transitioning menopause, with a significant impact on their quality of life, productivity and physical health. In this paper, we consider the associations between menopausal stage and/or hormone levels and sleep problems, mood and reduced cognitive performance. The role of estrogen and menopause hormone therapy (MHT) in cognitive function, sleep and mood are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hormone Replacement Therapy: Benefits and Risks)
Open AccessArticle
Upregulated Expression of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor, Its Analogue D-Dopachrome Tautomerase, and the CD44 Receptor in Peripheral CD4 T Cells from Clinically Isolated Syndrome Patients with Rapid Conversion to Clinical Defined Multiple Sclerosis
Medicina 2019, 55(10), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100667 - 01 Oct 2019
Viewed by 207
Abstract
Background and objectives: Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) and D-Dopachrome Tautomerase (DDT) are two pleiotropic and primarily, but not exclusively, proinflammatory cytokines belonging to the MIF family of cytokines that have recently been shown to be implicated in the pathogenesis of progressive [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) and D-Dopachrome Tautomerase (DDT) are two pleiotropic and primarily, but not exclusively, proinflammatory cytokines belonging to the MIF family of cytokines that have recently been shown to be implicated in the pathogenesis of progressive forms of human progressive Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and the experimental model counterpart in rodents. Materials and Methods: We have presently evaluated a transcriptomic analysis of the expression of MIF, DDT, their receptors CD74 and CD44, and MIF co-receptors CXCR2, CXCR4, and CXCR7 in peripheral blood of patients with Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS), with rapid progression to clinical defined MS. Results: Our analysis reveals that MIF, DDT, and CD44 are overexpressed in CD4+ T cells from patients with CIS, as compared to healthy controls. Accordingly, a significant overlap was observed between the genes overexpressed in CD4+ T cells from patients with CIS and the genes belonging to the MIF regulatory network. This upregulated expression appeared to be unique for CD4+T cells, as other immune cells including CD8+ T cells, B cells, and monocytes from these patients exhibited expression levels of these molecules that were superimposable to those observed in healthy controls. Conclusions: Overall, our data suggest that the overexpression MIF cytokine family signature may occur in CD4+ T cells from patients with CIS, and that this phenomenon may be implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease, offering the possibility to represent both a diagnostic marker and a therapeutic target. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Factors Influencing Quality of Life during the First Trimester of Pregnancy: A Prospective Cohort Study
Medicina 2019, 55(10), 666; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100666 - 01 Oct 2019
Viewed by 174
Abstract
Introduction: Pregnancy, delivery and postpartum periods are associated with fast changes leading to decreased self-confidence, anxiety, stress or even maternal depression impairing their quality of life (QOL). Although considered important, QOL of women during pregnancy is poorly understood. The aim of our [...] Read more.
Introduction: Pregnancy, delivery and postpartum periods are associated with fast changes leading to decreased self-confidence, anxiety, stress or even maternal depression impairing their quality of life (QOL). Although considered important, QOL of women during pregnancy is poorly understood. The aim of our study was to assess factors influencing QOL during first trimester of pregnancy. The secondary goal of our study was to evaluate whether QOL during first trimester of pregnancy is associated with newborn weight. Materials and methods: A prospective cohort study was performed including pregnant women during the first trimester visit. Our questionnaire consisted of the SF-36 QOL questionnaire, Wexner fecal incontinence scale, and other additional information. The SF-36 questionnaire mental (MCS) and physical (PCS) health scores were used in order to evaluate QOL of women during first trimester of pregnancy. Two multiple logistic regression models were created in order to determine independent variables that influence the QOL. Results: 440 pregnant women were included in the study. The two main domains that were used in the study were MCS and PCS, their medians were 50.0 (25.0; 50.0) and 50.1 (39.4; 59.0) points respectively. From the two logistic regression models we determined several independent factors that influence QOL of women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Additionally, we determined that women who reported worse QOL tended to give birth to newborns large for their gestational age. Conclusions: We found several significant variables that influence QOL of women during the first trimester of pregnancy. We also found that that lower MCS and PCS scores during the first trimester are associated with newborns large for gestational age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Obstetrics and Gynecology)
Open AccessArticle
Prevalence of Low Energy Availability in Competitively Trained Male Endurance Athletes
Medicina 2019, 55(10), 665; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100665 - 01 Oct 2019
Viewed by 324
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) has been introduced as a broad-spectrum syndrome leading to possible dysfunction in numerous physiological systems, driven primarily by low energy availability (EA). Research in females has identified specific EA cut-points indicative of risk level [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) has been introduced as a broad-spectrum syndrome leading to possible dysfunction in numerous physiological systems, driven primarily by low energy availability (EA). Research in females has identified specific EA cut-points indicative of risk level for developing physiological and performance disturbances. Cut-points in males have yet to be evaluated. This study examined the prevalence of low EA in competitive (non-elite), recreationally trained (CRT) male endurance athletes. Materials and Methods: Subjects were 108 CRT (38.6 ± 13.8 y; 12.2 ± 5.4 h/wk training) male endurance athletes (runners, cyclists, triathletes) who completed a descriptive survey online via Qualtrics® and returned 3 day diet and exercise training records. EA was calculated from returned surveys and training records. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) and lean body mass (LBM) were estimated from self-reported survey data. Prevalence of risk group was categorized based on the female cut-points: At risk (AR) ≤30 kcal/kg LBM, moderate risk (MR) = 30–45 kcal/kg LBM, or no risk (NR) ≥45 kcal/kg LBM. Results: In this sample, 47.2% (n = 51) were classified as AR, 33.3% (n = 36) as MR, and 19.4% (n = 21) as NR for low EA. Cyclists had lower EA (26.9 ± 17.4 kcal/kg LBM, n = 45) than runners (34.6 ± 13.3 kcal/kg LBM, n = 55, p = 0.016) and all other sport categories (39.5 ± 19.1 kcal/kg LBM, n = 8, p = 0.037). Conclusions: The findings indicate this sample had a high prevalence of risk for low EA, at 47.2%. Only 19.4% of participants were at no risk, meaning ~80% of participants were at some degree of risk of experiencing low EA. Cyclists were at greater risk in this cohort of low EA, although why this occurred was unclear and is in need of further investigation. Future research should address whether the current female cut-points for low EA are appropriate for use in male populations. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Microwave Thermal Ablation versus Open Partial Nephrectomy for the Treatment of Small Renal Tumors in Patients Over 70 Years Old
Medicina 2019, 55(10), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100664 - 01 Oct 2019
Viewed by 154
Abstract
Background and objectives: Microwave thermal ablation (MWT) is one of the treatment options for kidney cancer. However, for patients over 70 years old the safety and oncological efficacy of this treatment is still controversial. The goal of this study was to compare [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Microwave thermal ablation (MWT) is one of the treatment options for kidney cancer. However, for patients over 70 years old the safety and oncological efficacy of this treatment is still controversial. The goal of this study was to compare MWT with open partial nephrectomy (OPN) and to find out whether MWT is preferable in maintaining patient renal function and reducing the risk of postoperative complications. Materials and Methods: Depending on the treatment choice, all patients were divided into two groups: an MWT group and an open kidney resection (OPN) group. Data have been retrospectively collected for 7 years, starting with January 2012 up to January 2019. A total number of 33 patients with exophytic, single small renal masses were treated with either OPN (n = 18) or MWT (n = 15). All patients had histologically proven T1 kidney cancer. MWT was performed for patients who refused to have OPN or in those cases where the collecting system, renal calyx, and great vessels were free from tumor margins of more than 1 cm. Results: In the MWT group a median (IQR) patients’ age was 75 years (71–79) years, in the OPN group—71.5 (70–75) years, p = 0.005. A median (IQR) Charleston comorbidity index in the MWT group was 7.5 (5–10) and in the same way in the OPN group it was 5.22 (5–6), p = 0.005. A median (IQR) estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) before surgery was higher in the MWT group 59.9 (49.5–73.8) mL/min/1.73 m2 vs. 46.2 (42.7–65.8) mL/min/1.73 m2 in the OPN group, p = 0.12. Three days following the surgery a median (IQR) eGFR was 56.45 (46.6–71.9) in MWT group mL/min/1.73 m2 vs. 43.45 (38.3–65) mL/min/1.73 m2) in the OPN group, p = 0.30. A median (IQR) of primary hemoglobin level was lower in the MWT group compared with the OPN group (134.5 (124–140) g/L vs. 125 (108–138) g/L), p = 0.41. However, after the surgery a median (IQR) lower hemoglobin level was detected in the OPN group (123.5 (111–134) g/L vs. 126 (112–135)), p = 0.53. The median (IQR) duration of the procedure in MWT group was shorter compared with the OPN group (26 (25–30) min vs. 67.5 (55–90) min), p < 0.0001. A median (IQR) hospitalization time was shorter in MWT group (3 (2–3) days vs. 89 (7–11.5) days), p < 0.0001. Pain by the visual analogue scale (VAS) scale the first day after surgery was significantly lower—median (IQR) in the MWT group was 2 (1–3) vs. 4 (3–6)), p = 0.008. Treatment failure rate was numerically higher in MWT (1/15 vs. 0/18, p = 0.56). Conclusions: Pain level on the next day after surgery, mean number of hospitalization and operation time were significantly lower in the MWT group than in the OPN group. The blood loss estimated glomerular filtration rate and oncologic data between the two groups was not statistically significant. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Bioelectric Impedance Vector Analysis (BIVA) in Breast Cancer Patients: A Tool for Research and Clinical Practice
Medicina 2019, 55(10), 663; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100663 - 30 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Background and objectives: Body composition assessment can provide information associated with breast cancer patients’ (BCP) prognosis, that can lead interventions to improve survival outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an individualized nutrition intervention program on breast cancer [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Body composition assessment can provide information associated with breast cancer patients’ (BCP) prognosis, that can lead interventions to improve survival outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an individualized nutrition intervention program on breast cancer patients using bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA). Materials and Methods: This is a pretest-posttest study in recently diagnosed nonmetastatic BCP undergoing antineoplastic treatment, free of co-morbidities and dietary supplementation. Body composition was assessed at baseline and 6 months after an individualized nutrition intervention program, by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and BIVA. According to BIVA, each participant was located in the bivariate tolerance ellipses for Mexican population (50%, 75%, and 95%). In clinical practice, the 50% and 75% ellipses are considered within normality ranges. Results: Nine nonmetastatic BCP completed the intervention and were included in the analysis. After the intervention, they decreased by 5.8 kg of body weight (IQR, 3–6; p < 0.05), 3.8 kg of fat mass (IQR, 0.1–4.2; p < 0.05), and 1.4 kg of fat-free mass (IQR, −0.1 to 4; p < 0.05) while appendicular skeletal muscle mass remained unchanged (−0.2 kg, IQR, −0.8 to 2.3; p = 0.4). Using BIVA at baseline, five participants were among the 50% and 75% ellipses, mainly located in the area corresponding to edema and low lean tissue, two in the cachexia quadrant and two in the athletic quadrant (≥95% ellipse). After 6 months of intervention, six out of nine participants were in the athletic quadrant and eight of nine BCP were above the 5° phase angle cut-off point. One patient initially presented cachexia (≥95% ellipse); at postintervention her vector changed to the 50% ellipse. Conclusions: An individualized nutrition intervention program designed for nonmetastatic BCP was effective to improve the nutritional status of BCP as assessed by BIVA, therefore BIVA can be a useful tool to monitor changes in nonmetastatic BCP body composition in research and clinical practice. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Discrimination Against, Health Status and Wellness of People Who Use Drugs in Italian Services: A Survey
Medicina 2019, 55(10), 662; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100662 - 30 Sep 2019
Viewed by 165
Abstract
Background and Objectives: The aims of this study are to: describe the sociodemographic characteristics and typology of drug addiction among people who use drugs that attend the Servizio per le Dipendenze (SerD), and evaluate the competence and ability of these rehabilitation services to [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: The aims of this study are to: describe the sociodemographic characteristics and typology of drug addiction among people who use drugs that attend the Servizio per le Dipendenze (SerD), and evaluate the competence and ability of these rehabilitation services to improve their health status and wellness. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to July 2017. Patients attending two selected SerD facilities in the city of Naples, Italy were interviewed with a questionnaire gathering information on sociodemographic data, characteristics of drug addiction, characteristics of enrolment at the SerD, self-reported health status and wellness, and reports of the discrimination suffered. Results: Among the 451 people interviewed, 72.3% had started taking drugs by the age of 20, and half of them have used drugs within the last year. 54.5% of responders attended SerD for more than 10 years, and the two main reasons for attendance were to get help and to get methadone. 79.4% were declared to have a good/very good/excellent health status at the time of interviewing. 53.7% reported suffering from discrimination. Conclusions: Based on our study, discrimination is higher in participants who attended SerD for more than one year, who were formerly in prison, or who were current drug users. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Clinical Efficacy of Using Thermal Camera for Cryotherapy in Patients with Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Prospective Study
Medicina 2019, 55(10), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100661 - 30 Sep 2019
Viewed by 195
Abstract
Background and objectives: Cryotherapy is a method of treatment using cold application. This study aimed to evaluate postoperative clinical and hematological parameters and pain associated with total knee arthroplasty in patients and compared cryotherapy to the conventional method of cold ice pack compressions. [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Cryotherapy is a method of treatment using cold application. This study aimed to evaluate postoperative clinical and hematological parameters and pain associated with total knee arthroplasty in patients and compared cryotherapy to the conventional method of cold ice pack compressions. Materials and Methods: Between January 2015 and January 2016, 90 patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty for grade 4 gonarthrosis were prospectively evaluated. The patients were divided into three groups (n = 30, each): Group 1, cryotherapy was applied in the pre- and postoperative periods; Group 2, cryotherapy was applied only in the postoperative period; and Group 3 (control group), only a cold pack (gel ice) was applied postoperatively. In all groups, pre- and postoperative evaluations at 6, 24, and 48 h, hemorrhage follow-up, knee circumference measurement, visual analog scale pain score, knee circumference, and temperature measured by thermal camera were recorded. Results: Of the 90 patients, 10% were men and 90% were women. The mean age was 64.3 ± 8.1 (range: 46–83) years. The patella upper end diameter values were significantly lower in the postoperative period in Groups 1 and 2 than in Group 3 (p = 0.003). Hemoglobin levels at 24 and 48 h postoperatively were significantly lower in Group 3 than in Group 1 (p < 0.001, each) and Group 2 (p = 0.038, p < 0.001). At 6, 24, and 48 h follow-ups, pain values were significantly lower in Group 2 than in Group 3 (p < 0.001). Preoperative 6, 24, and 48 h temperature values were significantly lower in Group 1 than in Group 3 (p < 0.001 for each). It was found that the difference between preoperative and postoperative knee flexion measurements was significantly different in both groups or the difference between the groups was changed in each period (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Postoperative cryotherapy is a potentially simple, noninvasive option and beneficial for the reduction of reducing pain, bleeding, length of stay, analgesic requirement and swelling after total knee arthroplasty. Moreover, there was no early or late prosthesis infection in cryotherapy groups, which may be considered as an additional measure to prevent prosthesis infection. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Management of Direct Oral Anticoagulants in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Cardioversion
Medicina 2019, 55(10), 660; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55100660 - 30 Sep 2019
Viewed by 236
Abstract
Atrial fibrillation the most common cardiac arrhythmia. Its incidence rises steadily with each decade, becoming a real “epidemic phenomenon”. Cardioversion is defined as a rhythm control strategy which, if successful, restores normal sinus rhythm. This, whether obtained with synchronized shock or with drugs, [...] Read more.
Atrial fibrillation the most common cardiac arrhythmia. Its incidence rises steadily with each decade, becoming a real “epidemic phenomenon”. Cardioversion is defined as a rhythm control strategy which, if successful, restores normal sinus rhythm. This, whether obtained with synchronized shock or with drugs, involves a periprocedural risk of stroke and systemic embolism which is reduced by adequate anticoagulant therapy in the weeks before or by the exclusion of left atrial thrombi. Direct oral anticoagulants are safe, manageable, and provide rapid onset of oral anticoagulation; they are an important alternative to heparin/warfarin from all points of view, with a considerable reduction in bleedings and increase in the safety and quality of life of patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stroke, Dementia and Atrial Fibrillation)
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