Background and objectives:
Glial brain cancers affect nearly 20,000 individuals in the United States (USA) annually. SEER database data exploring the relationship between race and gliomas is now available and have shown that cerebral gliomas occur at a higher frequency in Caucasian men. However, such analyses did not include demographic data specific to the state of Florida. This study assessed the association between race and glial vs. non-glial Central Nervous System (CNS) cancers in Florida, USA. Materials and Methods:
This case-control study utilized the Florida Cancer Data Registry (FCDS), in which race was considered the exposure and development of glioma as the measured outcome. The sample was comprised of patients in Florida diagnosed with brain tumors from 1981 to 2013. Relative racial frequencies were compared between patients with glial brain tumors and those with other CNS tumors. Data was analyzed using logistic regression in order to determine any associations between race and frequency of diagnosis adjusting for several confounders (age, sex, smoking status, year of diagnosis, and insurance status). Results:
Between 1981 and 2013 a total of 14,092 patients meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were diagnosed in Florida with a primary brain tumor. Being of non-white race was associated with 60% decreased odds of glioma diagnosis compared to the reference white population (adjusted OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.34–0.47). Secondary findings include associations between increasing age and male sex with increased odds of glioma diagnosis. Decreased adjusted odds of glioma diagnosis were found with former smoking status (reference non-smokers), diagnosis between 2001 and 2010 (reference 1981–1990), and Medicaid or Medicare insurance (reference private insurance). Hispanic ethnicity, current smoking status, no insurance/self-pay, and geographical location (urban vs. rural) all had no association with glioma diagnosis. Conclusions:
These findings are consistent with and help reinforce previous studies utilizing national databases (SEER) which also showed increasing odds of glioma diagnosis in older white males. Various potential explanations for these findings include genetic predisposition, lifestyle and behavioral factors, and socioeconomic status, including access to healthcare. Future research aims at identifying potential genetic etiologies.
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