Next Article in Journal
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Medicina in 2018
Previous Article in Journal
Identification of Prognostic Biomarker Signatures and Candidate Drugs in Colorectal Cancer: Insights from Systems Biology Analysis
Open AccessArticle

Extent and Predictors of Poor Glycaemic Control among Elderly Pakistani Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Multi-Centre Cross-Sectional Study

1
Department of Pharmacy, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan
2
Faculty of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, University of Balochistan, Quetta 87300, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2019, 55(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55010021
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 3 December 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2019 / Published: 17 January 2019
Objectives: This study aimed to explore the relationship between glycaemic control and factors that may influence this among elderly type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in Lahore, Pakistan. Methods: This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Jinnah and Sir Ganga Ram Hospitals, Lahore using convenience sampling techniques between 1 December 2015 and 28 February 2016. The sample consisted of elderly (>65 years) T2DM patients. Glycaemic values and patient characteristics were obtained from medical charts. Consenting patients were interviewed to complete the Barthel Index, Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale, Clinical Frailty Scale, Iowa Pain Thermometer Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, Montreal Cognitive Assessment tool, Mini Nutritional Assessment Scale—Short Form and Self Care Inventory—Revised Version. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to determine the predictors of poor glycaemic control. Results: A total of 490 patients were approached and 400 agreed to participate. Overall, nearly one-third (32.2%, n = 129) of patients had glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) at the target level. Fasting and random plasma glucose levels were within the target range to much the same extent; (36.8%, n = 147) and (27%, n = 108), respectively. HbA1c levels were also higher in patients with co-morbidities (67.4%, n = 229) with diabetes-related complications (73.5%, n = 227). Significant predictors of impaired glycaemic control (HbA1c) included poor diabetes self-care (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95, 0.98), not being prescribed oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHA) (AOR 6.22; 95% CI 2.09, 18.46), regular hypoglycaemic attacks (AOR 2.53; 95% CI 1.34, 4.81) and falling tendency (AOR 0.19; 95% CI 0.10, 0.36). Conclusions: Poor glycaemic control prevailed among the majority of elderly Pakistani diabetic patients in this study. Triggering factors of poor glycaemic control should be taken into consideration by the healthcare professionals in targeting multifaceted interventions to achieve good glycaemic control. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetes; type 2 diabetes mellitus; elderly; glycaemic control; HbA1c levels; Pakistan diabetes; type 2 diabetes mellitus; elderly; glycaemic control; HbA1c levels; Pakistan
MDPI and ACS Style

Atif, M.; Saleem, Q.; Asghar, S.; Malik, I.; Ahmad, N. Extent and Predictors of Poor Glycaemic Control among Elderly Pakistani Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Multi-Centre Cross-Sectional Study. Medicina 2019, 55, 21.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map

1
Back to TopTop