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Biological Activities of Lactose-Based Prebiotics and Symbiosis with Probiotics on Controlling Osteoporosis, Blood-Lipid and Glucose Levels

1
Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Food Science, Szent István University, Ménesi st 44, HU-1118 Budapest, Hungary
2
Soós Ernő Water Technology Research Centre, Faculty of Engineering, University of Pannonia, Üllő út., H-3 Nagykanizsa, Hungary
3
Department of Refrigeration and Livestock Product Technology, Faculty of Food Science, Szent István University, Ménesi st 43–45, HU-1118 Budapest, Hungary
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2018, 54(6), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina54060098
Received: 17 November 2018 / Accepted: 28 November 2018 / Published: 3 December 2018
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Abstract

Lactose-based prebiotics are synthesized by enzymatic- or microbial- biotransformation of lactose and have unique functional values. In this comprehensive review article, the biochemical mechanisms of controlling osteoporosis, blood-lipid, and glucose levels by lactose-based prebiotics and symbiosis with probiotics are reported along with the results of clinical investigations. Interaction between lactose-based prebiotics and probiotics reduces osteoporosis by (a) transforming insoluble inorganic salts to soluble and increasing their absorption to gut wall; (b) maintaining and protecting mineral absorption surface in the intestine; (c) increasing the expression of calcium-binding proteins in the gut wall; (d) remodeling osteoclasts and osteoblasts formation; (e) releasing bone modulating factors; and (f) degrading mineral complexing phytic acid. Lactose-based prebiotics with probiotics control lipid level in the bloodstream and tissue by (a) suppressing the expressions of lipogenic- genes and enzymes; (b) oxidizing fatty acids in muscle, liver, and adipose tissue; (c) binding cholesterol with cell membrane of probiotics and subsequent assimilation by probiotics; (d) enzymatic-transformations of bile acids; and (e) converting cholesterol to coprostanol and its defecation. Symbiosis of lactose-based prebiotics with probiotics affect plasma glucose level by (a) increasing the synthesis of gut hormones plasma peptide-YY, glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon-like peptide-2 from entero-endocrine L-cells; (b) altering glucose assimilation and metabolism; (c) suppressing systematic inflammation; (d) reducing oxidative stress; and (e) producing amino acids. Clinical investigations show that lactose-based prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharide improves mineral absorption and reduces hyperlipidemia. Another lactose-based prebiotic, lactulose, improves mineral absorption, and reduces hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia. It is expected that this review article will be of benefit to food technologists and medical practitioners. View Full-Text
Keywords: lactose-based prebiotics; probiotics; osteoporosis; blood lipid level; blood glucose level lactose-based prebiotics; probiotics; osteoporosis; blood lipid level; blood glucose level
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Nath, A.; Molnár, M.A.; Csighy, A.; Kőszegi, K.; Galambos, I.; Huszár, K.P.; Koris, A.; Vatai, G. Biological Activities of Lactose-Based Prebiotics and Symbiosis with Probiotics on Controlling Osteoporosis, Blood-Lipid and Glucose Levels. Medicina 2018, 54, 98.

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