Next Article in Journal
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Evaluating Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Dental Implants and Extraction Procedures
Previous Article in Journal
Diabetic Ketoacidosis Associated with Thyroxine (T4) Toxicosis and Thyrotoxic Cardiomyopathy
Article Menu
Issue 6 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Paediatric Pain Medicine: Pain Differences, Recognition and Coping Acute Procedural Pain in Paediatric Emergency Room

1
Faculty of Medicine, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, LT-44307 Kaunas, Lithuania
2
Department of Pediatrics, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, LT-50161 Kaunas, Lithuania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2018, 54(6), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina54060094
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 1 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 27 November 2018
  |  
PDF [926 KB, uploaded 27 November 2018]
  |  

Abstract

Paediatric pain and its assessment and management are challenging for medical professionals, especially in an urgent care environment. Patients in a paediatric emergency room (PER) often undergo painful procedures which are an additional source of distress, anxiety, and pain. Paediatric procedural pain is often underestimated and neglected because of various myths, beliefs, and difficulties in its evaluation and treatment. However, it is very different from other origins of pain as it can be preventable. It is known that neonates and children can feel pain and that it has long-term effects that last through childhood into adulthood. There are a variety of pain assessment tools for children and they should be chosen according to the patient’s age, developmental stage, communication skills, and medical condition. Psychological factors such as PER environment, preprocedural preparation, and parental involvement should also be considered. There are proven methods to reduce a patient’s pain and anxiety during different procedures in PER. Distraction techniques such as music, videogames, virtual reality, or simple talk about movies, friends, or hobbies as well as cutaneous stimulation, vibration, cooling sprays, or devices are effective to alleviate procedural pain and anxiety. A choice of distraction technique should be individualized, selecting children who could benefit from nonpharmacological pain treatment methods or tools. Nonpharmacological pain management may reduce dosage of pain medication or exclude pharmacological pain management. Most nonpharmacological treatment methods are cheap, easily accessible, and safe to use on every child, so it should always be a first choice when planning a patient’s care. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of paediatric pain features, along with their physiology, assessment, management, and to highlight the importance and efficacy of nonpharmacological pain management in an urgent paediatric care setting. View Full-Text
Keywords: paediatric pain; acute pain; procedural pain; pain assessment; management; nonpharmacological paediatric pain; acute pain; procedural pain; pain assessment; management; nonpharmacological
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Pancekauskaitė, G.; Jankauskaitė, L. Paediatric Pain Medicine: Pain Differences, Recognition and Coping Acute Procedural Pain in Paediatric Emergency Room. Medicina 2018, 54, 94.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Medicina EISSN 1010-660X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top