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Medicina, Volume 54, Issue 5 (November 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) High fat programing of offspring cardiac outcomes Maternal nutrition during gestation and lactation [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Association between Sleep Quality and Body Composition in Sedentary Middle-Aged Adults
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 14 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 19 November 2018
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Abstract
Background: Ageing is associated with sleep pattern changes and body composition changes, which are related to several diseases. Purpose: This study aimed to analyse the association between sleep quality and an extensive set of body composition parameters (waist-hip ratio, body mass index, bone
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Background: Ageing is associated with sleep pattern changes and body composition changes, which are related to several diseases. Purpose: This study aimed to analyse the association between sleep quality and an extensive set of body composition parameters (waist-hip ratio, body mass index, bone mineral content, bone mineral density, lean mass, lean mass index, fat mass, fat mass percentage, fat mass index, visceral adipose tissue) and sleep quality in sedentary middle-aged adults. We also aimed to evaluate whether the possible associations accord between subjective and objective measurements of sleep quality. Methods: 74 (39 women) middle-aged sedentary adults (40–65 years old) participated in the present study. The sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) scale and accelerometers. A PSQI global score more than 5 indicates poor sleep quality. Weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured, and body mass index and waist-hip ratio were also calculated. Body composition was assessed with a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanner. Results: The PSQI global score was negatively associated with bone mineral content, bone mineral density, lean mass, lean mass index and positively associated with fat mass percentage. No association was found between accelerometer parameters and body composition variables. Conclusion: We showed that a subjective poor sleep quality was negatively associated with bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), lean mass and lean mass index (LMI) whereas was positively associated with fat mass percentage in middle-aged adults. We also observed that these associations did not accord with objective sleep quality measurements. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Decrease in Lipid Droplets in Adrenal Cortex of Male Wistar Rats after Chronic Exposure to Energy Drinks
Received: 14 September 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 15 November 2018 / Published: 19 November 2018
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Abstract
Background and objectives: Energy drinks are popular non-alcoholic beverages. They are consumed in large amounts, mainly by active, young people. Although they are easily accessible and marketed as safe, numerous cases of adverse effects have been published, including cardiac arrest, arrythmias, acute
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Background and objectives: Energy drinks are popular non-alcoholic beverages. They are consumed in large amounts, mainly by active, young people. Although they are easily accessible and marketed as safe, numerous cases of adverse effects have been published, including cardiac arrest, arrythmias, acute hepatitis, and renal failure. The aim of the current study is the assessment of energy drink influence on the histological structure of adrenal cortex in rats. Material and Methods: 15 male young Wistar rats were equally divided into three groups: control (C), experimental (E) and reversibility control (RC). C group received water and standard rodent food ad libitum while both E and RC groups had additionally unlimited access to energy drinks. C and E groups were decapitated after 8 weeks and RC was given another 8 weeks without energy drinks. Adrenal glands were embedded in paraffin blocks and 5 μm slides were prepared and stained according to standard H&E and Masson’s trichrome protocols. Additionally, immunohistochemical stainings against Ki-67, p53, CTGF and caspase-3 were prepared. Results: Decreased vacuolization and numerous pyknotic nuclei were noted in E and RC groups. Overexpression of caspase-3 was noted both subcapsular in zona glomerulosa and along sinusoids in zona fasciculata. Increased collagen deposition in zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata of E and RC was observed. Insular and irregular overexpression of CTGF was noted. The overall picture of CTGF expression matched the Masson’s trichrome. No significant difference was observed in Ki-67 expression. Conclusions: The results of the current study suggest that the stimulation is so intense that it causes significant damage to adrenal cortical cells, resulting in their apoptosis. It seems, however, that the observed effects are at least partially reversible. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Preventive Effect of Lactobacillus fermentum CQPC03 on Activated Carbon-Induced Constipation in ICR Mice
Received: 2 October 2018 / Revised: 25 October 2018 / Accepted: 15 November 2018 / Published: 19 November 2018
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Abstract
Background and objectives: Paocai (pickled cabbage), which is fermented by lactic acid bacteria, is a traditional Chinese food. The microorganisms of Paocai were isolated and identified, and the constipation inhibition effect of one of the isolated Lactobacillus was investigated. Materials and Methods: The
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Background and objectives: Paocai (pickled cabbage), which is fermented by lactic acid bacteria, is a traditional Chinese food. The microorganisms of Paocai were isolated and identified, and the constipation inhibition effect of one of the isolated Lactobacillus was investigated. Materials and Methods: The 16S rDNA technology was used for microbial identification. A mouse constipation model was established using activated carbon. After intragastric administration of Lactobacillus (109 CFU/mL), the mice were dissected to prepare pathological sections of the small intestine. Serum indicators were detected using kits, and the expression of small intestine-related mRNAs was detected by qPCR assay. Results: One strain of Lactobacillus was identified and named Lactobacillus fermentum CQPC03 (LF-CQPC03). Body weight and activated carbon propulsion rate were all higher in mice intragastrically administered with LF-CQPC03 compared with the control group, while the time to the first black stool in treated mice was lower than that in the control group. Serum assays showed that gastrin (Gas), endothelin (ET), and acetylcholinesterase (AchE) levels were significantly higher in the LF-CQPC03-treated mice than in the control group, while somatostatin (SS) levels were significantly lower than in the control mice. Mouse small intestine tissue showed that c-Kit, stem cell factor (SCF), and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) mRNA expression levels were significantly higher in the LF-CQPC03 treated mice than in control mice, while transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression levels were significantly lower in the LF-CQPC03 treated mice than in control mice. Conclusions: There is a better effect with high-dose LF-CQPC03, compared to the lower dose (LF-CQPC03-L), showing good probiotic potential, as well as development and application value. Full article
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Open AccessReview Modulation of the CCR6-CCL20 Axis: A Potential Therapeutic Target in Inflammation and Cancer
Received: 16 September 2018 / Revised: 1 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
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Abstract
Prototypical functions of the chemokine receptor CCR6 include immune regulation by maneuvering cell chemotaxis and selective delimiting of the pro-inflammatory TH17 and regulatory Treg subsets during chronic or acute systemic inflammation. Inhibition of CCR6 is proposed to attenuate disease symptoms
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Prototypical functions of the chemokine receptor CCR6 include immune regulation by maneuvering cell chemotaxis and selective delimiting of the pro-inflammatory TH17 and regulatory Treg subsets during chronic or acute systemic inflammation. Inhibition of CCR6 is proposed to attenuate disease symptoms and promote recuperation of multiple inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Prescription medicines with pharmacodynamics involving the inhibition of the chemokine axis CCR6–CCL20 are very limited. The development of such therapeutics is still at an early experimental stage and has mostly involved the utilization of pre-clinical models and neutralizing mono or polyclonal antibodies against either partner (CCR6 or CCL20). Other methods include the constitutive use of small molecules as peptide inhibitors or small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) to interfere with transcription at the nuclear level. In our review, we aim to introduce the wide array of potential CCR6–CCL20 inhibitors with an emphasis on attendant immune-modulator capacity that have been tested in the research field to date and are immensely promising compounds as forerunners of future curatives. Sixteen different tractable inhibitors of the CCR6–CCL20 duo have been identified as possessing high medicinal potential by drug developers worldwide to treat autoimmune and inflammatory diseases as shown in Figure 1. A multitude of antibody preparations are already available in the current pharmaceutical market as patented treatments for diseases in which the CCR6–CCL20 axis is operative, yet they must be used only as supplements with existing routinely prescribed medication as they collectively produce adverse side effects. Novel inhibitors are needed to evaluate this invaluable therapeutic target which holds much promise in the research and development of complaisant remedies for inflammatory diseases. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Changes of Left and Right Ventricle Mechanics and Function in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease Undergoing Haemodialysis
Received: 3 August 2018 / Revised: 7 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
Background and objectives: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases even in its early stages and is associated with structural and functional cardiac abnormalities. The aim of this study was to use speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) to evaluate left and
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Background and objectives: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases even in its early stages and is associated with structural and functional cardiac abnormalities. The aim of this study was to use speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) to evaluate left and right ventricle mechanics and function, markers of subclinical dysfunction in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing haemodialysis. Methods: Patients with ESRD undergoing regular haemodialysis and with preserved left ventricle (LV) ejection fraction (EF) (n = 38) were enrolled in this retrospective study. The control group consisted of 32 age-matched persons with normal kidney function (glomerular filtration rate (GFR) >90 mL/min/1.73 m2 according to Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI)). Conventional 2D echocardiography and STE were performed in all patients. Results: 70 individuals, 31 (44.29%) males and 39 (55.71%) females, were included in the study. There were no significant differences in age, sex and body surface area between the groups. LV end diastolic diameter did not differ between the groups, while LV myocardial mass index was higher in the group of patients on haemodialysis (111.64 ± 27.99 versus 84.21 ± 16.99, p < 0.001) and LV diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) was found in 31 (81.6%) patients of this group. LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) (−22.43 ± 2.71 versus −24.73 ± 2.03, p < 0.001) and LV global circumferential strain (GCS) at the mitral valve and papillary muscles levels (−18.73 ± 3.49 versus −21.67 ± 2.22, p < 0.001; −18.64 ± 2.75 versus −20.42 ± 2.38, p = 0.005, respectively) were significantly lower in haemodialysis group patients. The parameters of the right ventricle (RV) free wall longitudinal function including RV GLS (−22.63 ± 3.04 versus −25.45 ± 2.48, p < 0.001), were reduced in haemodialysis patients compared with the controls. However, RV fractional area change (FAC) did not differ between the groups (p = 0.19). Conclusion: Patients with ESRD and preserved LV ejection fraction undergoing haemodialysis had a higher prevalence of LVDD and impaired LV longitudinal and circumferential deformation indices, as well as reduced RV longitudinal function and deformation parameters compared with the age-matched healthy controls. STE helps to detect subclinical LV and RV dysfunction in chronic haemodialysis patients. Full article
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Open AccessReview High Fat Programming and Cardiovascular Disease
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 31 October 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
Programming is triggered through events during critical developmental phases that alter offspring health outcomes. High fat programming is defined as the maintenance on a high fat diet during fetal and/or early postnatal life that induces metabolic and physiological alterations that compromise health. The
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Programming is triggered through events during critical developmental phases that alter offspring health outcomes. High fat programming is defined as the maintenance on a high fat diet during fetal and/or early postnatal life that induces metabolic and physiological alterations that compromise health. The maternal nutritional status, including the dietary fatty acid composition, during gestation and/or lactation, are key determinants of fetal and postnatal development. A maternal high fat diet and obesity during gestation compromises the maternal metabolic state and, through high fat programming, presents an unfavorable intrauterine milieu for fetal growth and development thereby conferring adverse cardiac outcomes to offspring. Stressors on the heart, such as a maternal high fat diet and obesity, alter the expression of cardiac-specific factors that alter cardiac structure and function. The proper nutritional balance, including the fatty acid balance, particularly during developmental windows, are critical for maintaining cardiac structure, preserving cardiac function and enhancing the cardiac response to metabolic challenges. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Association between Sports Participation in Early Life and Arterial Intima-Media Thickness among Adults
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
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Abstract
Background: Early sports practice is associated with several health benefits during childhood and adolescence, moreover, recent evidence also suggests that sports during childhood and adolescence can produce some benefits during adulthood. However, the association between early sports practice and arterial thickness is not
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Background: Early sports practice is associated with several health benefits during childhood and adolescence, moreover, recent evidence also suggests that sports during childhood and adolescence can produce some benefits during adulthood. However, the association between early sports practice and arterial thickness is not clear. Thus, our aim was analyze the association between sports participation in childhood and adolescence, carotid/femoral intima–media thickness, and blood flow index in adulthood. Material and Methods: Sample was composed of 107 adults (64 males) between 30 years and 50 years, which were recruited from different gyms and university staff from São Paulo State University. Participants were divided according to sports participation in early life (engaged in sports during childhood and adolescence (n = 52) and no engagement in sports during childhood and adolescence (n = 55)). Carotid and femoral intima–media thickness were measured through Doppler ultrasonography method. Carotid and femoral index were estimated from ultrasonography measures. As covariates, the following were adopted: chronological age, sex, body fat (through dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), c-reactive protein, HOMA, alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, mean arterial pressure and current physical activity (pedometer). General estimating equations were used, adopting p < 0.05. Results: In the adjusted analyses, early sports participation was associated with lower carotid intima–media index (early sports participation: 0.64 mm ± 0.14 mm vs. no early sports participation: 0.71 mm ± 0.21 mm; p = 0.011), but not associated with femoral intima–media thickness, carotid resistive index and femoral resistive index after the adjustment by potential confounders. Conclusions: Sports participation in childhood and adolescence was associated with a reduced carotid intima–media thickness, independently of relevant confounders. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Levels of Physical Activity in Lithuanian Adolescents
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 3 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
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Background and objective: Population levels of physical activity are an international concern. The purpose of the present study was to describe and analyse physical activity levels in Lithuanian adolescents. Materials and methods: With this aim in mind, the Physician-based Assessment and
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Background and objective: Population levels of physical activity are an international concern. The purpose of the present study was to describe and analyse physical activity levels in Lithuanian adolescents. Materials and methods: With this aim in mind, the Physician-based Assessment and Counselling for Exercise (PACE) questionnaire was administered to 5141 adolescents residing in Lithuania, 2502 boys (48.7%) and 2639 girls (51.3%), aged between 11 and 19 years. Results: It was found that adolescents studied met the physical activity guideline, of 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity a day, on average 3.6 days/week (SD = 2.1). A total of 3426 adolescents (66.6%) were inactive as classified by the PACE questionnaire (at least 1 h of physical activity/day < 5 days/week). In the present sample there were more active (at least 1 h of physical activity/day ≥ 5 days/week) boys (n = 994, 39.7%) than girls (n = 721, 27.3%) (p < 0.001; OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.56 to 1.97), and, on average, boys were more likely to meet daily recommendations of physical activity than girls, 0.7 days more a week (p < 0.001; IRRs 1.21, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.25). According to age, younger adolescents (11–12 years) were significantly more active than older adolescents (13–19 years) and a curvilinear relationship between age and physical activity was observed with significant linear (unstandardized beta (B) = −0.807; standardized beta (β) = −0.796; p < 0.001) and quadratic terms (unstandardized beta (B) = 0.024; standardized beta (β) = 0.704; p < 0.001). Conclusions: It is necessary to increase the level of physical activity in Lithuanian adolescents and intervention programs should be carried out considering these results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Insights on Allergic Rhinitis Management from a Northern Cyprus Perspective and Evaluation of the Impact of Pharmacist-Led Educational Intervention on Patients’ Outcomes
Received: 12 September 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 2 November 2018 / Published: 7 November 2018
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Abstract
Background and objective: the global prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) is rising and yet there is scarce information concerning the diagnosis, management and treatment patterns of AR in Northern Cyprus (NC). This study aims to provide a unique perspective on AR management
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Background and objective: the global prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) is rising and yet there is scarce information concerning the diagnosis, management and treatment patterns of AR in Northern Cyprus (NC). This study aims to provide a unique perspective on AR management as well as assessing the effectiveness of the pharmacist-led educational intervention for improving care of AR patients. Methods: across-sectional survey was carried out with community pharmacists (n = 70), patients (n = 138) and ear, nose and throat (ENT) specialists (n = 12) in NC. For a controlled interventional trial, trained pharmacists provided a brief education on management of AR and nasal spray technique for patients while other pharmacists provided the usual care. Quality of life (QoL) and other outcome measures on the perceived symptom severity of the two groups were compared after a 6-week period. Results: only 33.3% of the ear, nose and throat (ENT) specialists and 15.7% of the community pharmacists are aware of the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) guidelines. The majority of patients (63%) self-managed with over-the-counter medications. Nasal congestion (96.4%) is the most bothersome symptom and oral antihistamines are the most commonly purchased medications (51.4%), indicating a pattern of suboptimal management. The pharmacists-led educational intervention has resulted in statistically more significant improvement in regards to nasal congestion and QoL for the intervention group patients (p < 0.05). Conclusion: the current management of AR has not been in accordance with the ARIA guidelines in NC. An educational intervention of the pharmacists can enhance the symptom management and improve the QoL in patients with AR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Advances in the Treatment of Sinus and Nasal Diseases)
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Open AccessCase Report Bilateral Optic Neuritis Secondary to Nivolumab Therapy: A Case Report
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 21 October 2018 / Accepted: 31 October 2018 / Published: 6 November 2018
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Abstract
Pediatric glioblastoma multiforme is an uncommon and highly mortal brain cancer. New therapeutic treatments are being intensively investigated by researchers in order to extend the survival of patients. The immune checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab in the treatment of pediatric glioblastoma multiforme is currently under
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Pediatric glioblastoma multiforme is an uncommon and highly mortal brain cancer. New therapeutic treatments are being intensively investigated by researchers in order to extend the survival of patients. The immune checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab in the treatment of pediatric glioblastoma multiforme is currently under review; it is a human immunoglobulin G4 monoclonal antibody that works against the programmed cell death protein 1 receptor, designed to enhance an immunologic reaction against cancer cells. Herein, we describe the first report of a bilateral optic neuritis induced by nivolumab in a grade 4 glioblastoma multiforme patient. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Adenoviral Activity of 2-(3-Chlorotetrahydrofuran-2-yl)-4-Tosyl-5-(Perfluoropropyl)-1,2,3-Triazole
Received: 27 August 2018 / Revised: 30 October 2018 / Accepted: 30 October 2018 / Published: 5 November 2018
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Background and objectives: A considerable increase in the levels of adenoviral diseases among both adults and children necessitate the development of effective methods for its prevention and treatment. The synthesis of the new fluorinated 1,2,3-triazoles, and the study of the mechanisms of their
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Background and objectives: A considerable increase in the levels of adenoviral diseases among both adults and children necessitate the development of effective methods for its prevention and treatment. The synthesis of the new fluorinated 1,2,3-triazoles, and the study of the mechanisms of their action, are promising for the development of efficient antiviral drugs of our time. Materials and Methods: Antiviral activity and cell cytotoxic effect of 2-(3-chlorotetrahydrofuran-2-yl)-4-tosyl-5-(perfluoropropyl)-1,2,3-triazole (G29) were determined by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay. The influence of the compound on the infectivity of human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV-5) was carried out via the cytomorphology method. The influence of the compound on the cell cycle under a condition of adenovirus infection was studied using flow cytometric analysis of propidium iodide-stained cells. Results: It was found that G29 suppressed HAdV-5 reproduction by 50% in concentrations of 37 μg/mL. Furthermore, the compound reduced the titer of virus obtained de novo, and inhibited HAdV-5 inclusion bodies formation by 84–90%. The use of fluorinated compounds under the conditions of adenovirus infection decreased the number of apoptotic cells by 11% and the number of cells in S phase by 21–42% compared to the profile of infected cells. Conclusions: The fluorinated compound G29 showed moderate activity against HAdV-5 based on several mechanisms. It led to the normalization of the life cycle of cells infected with adenovirus to the level of non-infected cells and caused the obstruction of HAdV-5 reproduction, inducing the formation of non-infectious virus progeny. Full article
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Open AccessReview Current Status of Direct Acting Antiviral Agents against Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Pakistan
Received: 5 September 2018 / Revised: 20 October 2018 / Accepted: 31 October 2018 / Published: 5 November 2018
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In Pakistan, the burden of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the second highest in the world with the development of chronic hepatitis. Interferon-based combination therapy with ribavirin was the only available treatment until a few years back, with severe side-effects and
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In Pakistan, the burden of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the second highest in the world with the development of chronic hepatitis. Interferon-based combination therapy with ribavirin was the only available treatment until a few years back, with severe side-effects and high failure rates against different genotypes of HCV. Interferon-free all-oral direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) approved by the FDA have revolutionized the HCV therapeutic landscape due to their efficiency in targeting different genotypes in different categories of patients, including treatment naïve, treatment failure and relapsing patients, as well as patients with compensated and decompensated cirrhosis. The availability and use of these DAAs is limited in the developing world. Sofosbuvir (SOF), a uridine nucleotide analogue and inhibitor of HCV encoded NS5B polymerase, is now a widely available and in-use DAA in Pakistan; whereas daclatasvir was recently added in the list. According to the documented results, there is hope that this disease can be effectively cured in Pakistan, although a few concerns still remain. The aim of this article is to review the effectiveness of DAAs and the current status of this treatment against HCV genotype 3 infection in Pakistan; various factors associated with SVR; its limitations as an effective treatment regime; and future implications. Full article
Open AccessArticle Factors Associated with Perceived Life Chaos among Post-Myocardial Infarction Survivors in a Malaysian Cardiac Care Facility
Received: 12 August 2018 / Revised: 22 October 2018 / Accepted: 31 October 2018 / Published: 5 November 2018
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Background and objectives: Survivors of chronic life-threatening conditions like myocardial infarction (MI) are often confronted with multiple physical and psychological stressors as a consequence of elevated demands of lifestyle adjustments and modifications. Such stressors, collectively known as “life chaos”, cause disruption to one’s
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Background and objectives: Survivors of chronic life-threatening conditions like myocardial infarction (MI) are often confronted with multiple physical and psychological stressors as a consequence of elevated demands of lifestyle adjustments and modifications. Such stressors, collectively known as “life chaos”, cause disruption to one’s lifestyle equilibrium of having organized, calm, and regular routines. The objective of the current study was to determine the level of life chaos and its associated correlates among post-myocardial infarction (post-MI) survivors in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among 242 post-MI survivors in a Malaysian cardiac health facility from July to September 2016. A self-administered questionnaire in Malay that consisted of items on socio-demographics, health attributes, validated OSLO-3 Social Support Scale (OSS-3), and the Modified Confusion, Hubbub, and Order Scale (CHAOS-6) was utilized in this study. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results: The sample constituted of 208 (86%) men and 34 (14%) women. The average age was 55 years (SD = 11), and the age ranged between 24 and 96 years. Overall, 128 (52.9%) of the total post-MI survivors had highly chaotic lives. In multivariate analysis, younger age, lower household income, perceived financial insecurity, poor health status, and multiple comorbidities were related to the high chaos score, and these associations were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Highly chaotic lifestyles were prevalent in post-MI survivors. Demographic, health attributes, and socio-economic factors were important correlates of life chaos. Full article
Open AccessArticle Renal Replacement Therapy in Children in Lithuania: Challenges, Trends, and Outcomes
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 19 October 2018 / Accepted: 30 October 2018 / Published: 2 November 2018
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Background and Objectives: Pediatric renal replacement therapy (RRT) in Lithuania resumed in 1994 after a 12-year pause in renal transplantation. Management of end stage renal disease (ESRD) has changed, and outcomes have improved over decades. Our aim was to evaluate the dynamics of
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Background and Objectives: Pediatric renal replacement therapy (RRT) in Lithuania resumed in 1994 after a 12-year pause in renal transplantation. Management of end stage renal disease (ESRD) has changed, and outcomes have improved over decades. Our aim was to evaluate the dynamics of RRT in Lithuania in the period 1994–2015, describe its distinctive features, and compare our results with other countries. Materials and Methods: Data between 1994 and 2015 were collected from patients under the age of 18 years with ESRD receiving RRT. The data included: Hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD), transplantation incidence and prevalence, transplant waiting time, dialysis modalities before transplantation, causes of ESRD and gender distribution in transplanted patients, and patient and graft survival. Results: RRT incidence and prevalence maintained an increase up until 2009. Sixty-four transplantations were performed. Juvenile nephronophthisis (25.9%) was the primary cause of ESRD in transplanted children. The transplant waiting time median was 8.0 months. The male to female ratio post-transplantation was 1.02. Patient survival after transplantation at 10 years was 90.0%, while graft survival for living (related) was 77.0% and 51.1% for deceased. Twelve patients died while on RRT. Conclusions: RRT numbers are increasing in Lithuania. HD is the primary treatment of choice before transplantation, with continued low numbers of preemptive transplantation. Patient survival post-transplantation is favorable, though graft survival is less satisfactory. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Probiotics on the Glucose Levels of Pregnant Women: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Received: 27 August 2018 / Revised: 19 October 2018 / Accepted: 30 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
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Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a condition, in which women develop high blood sugar levels during pregnancy without having diabetes. Evidence on the effects of probiotics on the blood glucose levels of women with GDM is inconsistent. Objective: The present study aimed
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Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a condition, in which women develop high blood sugar levels during pregnancy without having diabetes. Evidence on the effects of probiotics on the blood glucose levels of women with GDM is inconsistent. Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the effects of probiotics on the blood glucose levels of pregnant women. Methods: Online databases, such as PubMed, Cochrane, and Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE) were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published before July 2018. Trials had to meet the inclusion criteria of our study. Methodological quality and risk bias were independently assessed by two reviewers. Data were pooled using a random effects model and were expressed as the mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Heterogeneity was evaluated and quantified as I2. Results: In total, 12 RCTs were included in this study. Studies have shown that the use of probiotics significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose (FBG) level (MD: −0.10 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.19, −0.02), insulin concentration (MD: −2.24 μIU/mL; 95% CI: −3.69, −0.79), Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) score (MD: −0.47; 95% CI: −0.74, −0.21), and Homeostasis model of assessment-estimated β cell function (HOMA-B) score (MD: −20.23; 95% CI: −31.98, −8.49) of pregnant women. In a subgroup analysis, whether the blood glucose-lowering effect of probiotics influenced the diagnosis of pregnant women with GDM was assessed. The results showed that probiotics had significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose (FBG) level (MD: −0.10 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.17, −0.04) and HOMA-IR score (MD: −0.37; 95% CI: −0.72, −0.02) of pregnant women who were not diagnosed with GDM. Conclusion: Probiotics reduce the blood glucose level of pregnant women, especially without GDM diagnosis. However, further research using RCTs must be conducted to validate the results of the present study. Full article
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Open AccessReview Postponing Pregnancy Through Oocyte Cryopreservation for Social Reasons: Considerations Regarding Clinical Practice and the Socio-Psychological and Bioethical Issues Involved
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 1 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 25 October 2018
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Abstract
Oocyte freezing for ‘social reasons’ refers to women of reproductive age who are aiming to prolong, protect and secure their fertility. The term emerged to describe application of the highly promising technique, namely vitrification on oocytes retrieved through controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) from
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Oocyte freezing for ‘social reasons’ refers to women of reproductive age who are aiming to prolong, protect and secure their fertility. The term emerged to describe application of the highly promising technique, namely vitrification on oocytes retrieved through controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) from women intending to preserve their fertility for social reasons. These women opt to cryopreserve their oocytes at a point in their life when they need to postpone childbearing on the grounds of so called ‘social’ reasons. These reasons may include a highly driven career, absence of an adequate partner, financial instability, or personal reasons that make them feel unprepared for motherhood. This is a sensitive and multifaceted issue that entails medical, bioethical and socio-psychological components. The latest trend and the apparent increase noted on oocyte freezing for ‘social reasons’ has prompted our team of fertility specialists, embryologists, obstetricians, gynecologists and psychologists to proceed with a thorough, critical and all-inclusive comprehensive analysis. The wide range of findings of this analysis involve concerns of embryology and epigenetics that shape decisions made in the IVF laboratory, issues regarding obstetric and perinatal concerns on the pregnancy concluding from these oocytes and the respective delivery management and neonatal data, to the social and bioethical impact of this trend’s application. This literature review refers to matters rising from the moment the ‘idea’ of this option is ‘birthed’ in a woman’s thoughts, to proceeding and executing it clinically, up until the point of the pediatric follow up of the children born. We aim to shed light to the controversial issue of oocyte freezing, while objectively exhibit all aspects regarding this complex matter, as well as to respectfully approach how could the prospect of our future expectations be shaped from the impact of its application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Embryology and Reproductive Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle The Efficacy of Ultrasound-Guided Paravertebral Block in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy
Received: 17 August 2018 / Revised: 5 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 23 October 2018
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Abstract
Background and objectives: Despite its wide use in thoracic procedures, to date, few studies have assessed the effectiveness of paravertebral block (PVB) in laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in an adult population. In these studies, PVB was performed bilaterally using nerve stimulator guidance. To the
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Background and objectives: Despite its wide use in thoracic procedures, to date, few studies have assessed the effectiveness of paravertebral block (PVB) in laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in an adult population. In these studies, PVB was performed bilaterally using nerve stimulator guidance. To the best of our knowledge, the effectiveness of unilateral preoperative and postoperative ultrasound-guided PVB has not been evaluated in patients undergoing elective LC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of single-dose unilateral paravertebral block (PVB) in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) under general anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Patients undergoing LC were randomly separated into control, preoperative block, and postoperative block groups. PVB was performed unilaterally using bupivacaine under ultrasound guidance. Postoperative pain within the first 24 h, side effects, intraoperative opioid and postoperative analgesic requirements were noted. Evaluation was made of a total of 90 patients (25 males, 65 females) with a mean age of 45.78 ± 14.0 years (range, 19–74 years). Results: Opioid and additional analgesic needs and nausea/vomiting rates were significantly reduced in the preoperative block group compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores were significantly lower in the preoperative and postoperative block groups compared to the control group (p < 0.05 for all). When the VAS scores were compared between the preoperative and postoperative block groups, a significant difference in favor of the preoperative group was observed in terms of the zero minute-, 1st and 2nd h assessments (p < 0.05 for all). Conclusions: Ultrasound-guided PVB is a useful and safe approach for pain management during and after LC. Preoperative block can also reduce the rate of requirement for intraoperative opioid and postoperative analgesia. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Observational Study of Antibiotic Usage at the Children’s Clinical University Hospital in Riga, Latvia
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 23 October 2018
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Abstract
Background and objectives: Many pediatric patients have been treated with antibiotics during their hospitalization. There is a need to improve antibiotic prescribing for pediatric patients because many of these prescriptions are inappropriate. Antibiotic consumption analysis was conducted at the Children’s Clinical University Hospital
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Background and objectives: Many pediatric patients have been treated with antibiotics during their hospitalization. There is a need to improve antibiotic prescribing for pediatric patients because many of these prescriptions are inappropriate. Antibiotic consumption analysis was conducted at the Children’s Clinical University Hospital to identify targets for quality improvement. Materials and Methods: A one day cross-sectional point prevalence survey (PPS) was conducted in May and November 2011–2013 using a previously validated and standardized method. The survey included all inpatient pediatric and neonatal beds and identified all children receiving an antibiotic treatment on the day of survey. Total consumption of systemic antibiotics belonging to the ATC J01 class (except amphenicols (J01B) and a combination of antibacterials (J01R)) was also analyzed by using a defined daily dose (DDD) approach and antibiotic drug utilization (90%DU) for the period 2006–2015. Results were compared with results in 2017 using the DDD and 90%DU methodology. Results: The most commonly used antibiotic group in all PPS, except in May and November 2011, was other β-lactam antibiotics (J01D): 42 (40%) prescriptions in May 2013 and 66 (42%) and November 2011. In 2006–2015 and also in 2017, the most commonly used antibiotic groups were penicillins (J01C) and other β-lactam antibiotics (J01D)—76% (90%DU) of the total antibiotic consumption registered in 2006, 73% in 2015 and 70% in 2017. Starting in 2008, amoxicillin was the most commonly used antibiotic at the hospital. The usage of ceftriaxone increased from 3% in 2006 to 13% in 2015, but decreased in 2017 (7%). Conclusions: Study results from 2006–2015 showed that there was a need to establish a stronger antibiotic prescribing policy in the hospital reducing the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics (especially 3rd generation cephalosporins) and increasing the use of narrower spectrum antibiotics. It was partly achieved in 2017 with some reduction in ceftriaxone use. Full article
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Open AccessReview Association between the Vicious Cycle of Diabetes-Associated Complications and Glycemic Control among the Elderly: A Systematic Review
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 27 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 15 October 2018
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Abstract
Background and objectives: Improved quality of life (QoL) and life expectancy of elderly diabetic patients revolves around optimal glycemic control. Inadequate glycemic control may lead to the development of diabetes-associated complications (DAC), which not only complicate the disease, but also affect morbidity
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Background and objectives: Improved quality of life (QoL) and life expectancy of elderly diabetic patients revolves around optimal glycemic control. Inadequate glycemic control may lead to the development of diabetes-associated complications (DAC), which not only complicate the disease, but also affect morbidity and mortality. Based on the available literature, the aim was to elucidate the vicious cycle underpinning the relationship between diabetes complications and glycemic control. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed to find eligible studies published between 1 January 2000 and 22 September 2018 pertaining to diabetes complications and glycemic control. Results: Initially, 261 studies were retrieved. Out of these, 67 were duplicates and therefore were excluded. From the 194 remaining articles, 85 were removed based on irrelevant titles and/or abstracts. Subsequently, the texts of 109 articles were read in full and 71 studies were removed at this stage for failing to provide relevant information. Finally, 38 articles were selected for this review. Depression, impaired cognition, poor physical functioning, frailty, malnutrition, chronic pain, and poor self-care behavior were identified as the major diabetes-associated complications that were associated with poor glycemic control in elderly diabetic patients. Conclusions: This paper proposes that diabetes-associated complications are interrelated, and that impaired glycemic control aggravates diabetes complications; as a result, patient’s self-care abilities are compromised. A schema is generated to reflect a synthesis of the literature found through the systematic review process. This not only affects patients’ therapeutic goals, but may also hamper their health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and financial status. Full article
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Open AccessReview Lower Airway Virology in Health and Disease—From Invaders to Symbionts
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 13 October 2018
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Abstract
Studies of human airway virome are relatively recent and still very limited. Culture-independent microbial techniques showed growing evidence of numerous viral communities in the respiratory microbial ecosystem. The significance of different acute respiratory viruses is already known in the pathogenesis of chronic conditions,
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Studies of human airway virome are relatively recent and still very limited. Culture-independent microbial techniques showed growing evidence of numerous viral communities in the respiratory microbial ecosystem. The significance of different acute respiratory viruses is already known in the pathogenesis of chronic conditions, such as asthma, cystic fibrosis (CF), or chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD), and their exacerbations. Viral pathogens, such as influenza, metapneumovirus, parainfluenza, respiratory syncytial virus, or rhinovirus, have been associated with impaired immune response, acute exacerbations, and decrease in lung function in chronic lung diseases. However, more data have attributed a role to Herpes family viruses or the newly identified Anelloviridae family of viruses in chronic diseases, such as asthma, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), or CF. Impaired antiviral immunity, bacterial colonization, or used medication, such as glucocorticoids or antibiotics, contribute to the imbalance of airway microbiome and may shape the local viral ecosystem. A specific part of virome, bacteriophages, frames lung microbial communities through direct contact with its host, the specific bacteria known as Pseudomonas aeruginosa or their biofilm formation. Moreover, antibiotic resistance is induced through phages via horizontal transfer and leads to more severe exacerbations of chronic airway conditions. Morbidity and mortality of asthma, COPD, CF, and IPF remains high, despite an increased understanding and knowledge about the impact of respiratory virome in the pathogenesis of these conditions. Thus, more studies focus on new prophylactic methods or therapeutic agents directed toward viral–host interaction, microbial metabolic function, or lung microbial composition rearrangement. Full article
Open AccessArticle Comparison of Carotid Ultrasound Indices and the Triglyceride Glucose Index in Hypertensive and Normotensive Community-Dwelling Individuals: A Case Control Study for Evaluating Atherosclerosis
Received: 12 September 2018 / Revised: 5 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
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Abstract
Background and objectives: Hypertension (HTN) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. High blood pressure is a major cause of atherosclerosis which leads to myocardial infarction and stroke. Insulin resistance (IR) is correlated with HTN and atherosclerosis. To determine differences between
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Background and objectives: Hypertension (HTN) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. High blood pressure is a major cause of atherosclerosis which leads to myocardial infarction and stroke. Insulin resistance (IR) is correlated with HTN and atherosclerosis. To determine differences between the effects of HTN on the intima media thicknesses (IMTs) of the internal (ICA), external (ECA), and common carotid arteries (CCA), and evaluate the carotid plaque presence between hypertensive and normotensive individuals, a case-control study was designed among community-dwelling individuals. The relationship between the triglyceride glucose (TyG) index and atherosclerosis was also investigated in this study. Materials and Methods: Data from 77 hypertensive and 199 normotensive individuals were analyzed in this study. Results: The IMTs of the CCA, ICA, and ECA, and the TyG index were all higher in hypertensive individuals compared to the control group (all p < 0.05). After controlling for age, sex, the body-mass index, and TyG index, HTN was an independent predictor of a high CCA IMT (odds ratio (OR) = 2.48; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24–4.93) and presence of plaque (OR = 2.36; CI = 1.15–4.85) in the carotid artery. Conclusions: HTN was an independent risk of carotid IMT thickening and atherosclerosis. TyG index could only predict the CCA IMT independent of other risk factors (OR = 2.09; CI = 1.07–4.09). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Type 2 Diabetes and Insulin Resistance)
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Open AccessReview Cardiac Glucolipotoxicity and Cardiovascular Outcomes
Received: 7 September 2018 / Revised: 4 October 2018 / Accepted: 5 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
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Abstract
Cardiac insulin signaling can be impaired due to the altered fatty acid metabolism to induce insulin resistance. In diabetes and insulin resistance, the metabolic, structural and ultimately functional alterations in the heart and vasculature culminate in diabetic cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, ischemia and
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Cardiac insulin signaling can be impaired due to the altered fatty acid metabolism to induce insulin resistance. In diabetes and insulin resistance, the metabolic, structural and ultimately functional alterations in the heart and vasculature culminate in diabetic cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, ischemia and eventually heart failure. Glucolipotoxicity describes the combined, often synergistic, adverse effects of elevated glucose and free fatty acid concentrations on heart structure, function, and survival. The quality of fatty acid shapes the cardiac structure and function, often influencing survival. A healthy fatty acid balance is therefore critical for maintaining cardiac integrity and function. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Changes in Morphology and Presence of Pinopodes in Endometrial Cells during the Luteal Phase in Women with Infertility Problems: A Pilot Study
Received: 3 September 2018 / Revised: 3 October 2018 / Accepted: 4 October 2018 / Published: 10 October 2018
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Abstract
Objective: To investigate morphological changes in the endometrial epithelial cells of patients with infertility problems. Materials and methods: Endometrial biopsies were obtained from 10 women who have undergone several unsuccessful in vitro fertilisation (IVF) procedures. Endometrial biopsies were performed between luteinizing hormone surge
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Objective: To investigate morphological changes in the endometrial epithelial cells of patients with infertility problems. Materials and methods: Endometrial biopsies were obtained from 10 women who have undergone several unsuccessful in vitro fertilisation (IVF) procedures. Endometrial biopsies were performed between luteinizing hormone surge days LH+6 to +10 of the natural menstrual cycle. Each sample was divided into three parts, which were processed for histological, transmission (TEM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations. Results: Histological investigations demonstrated significant alterations in the apical part of epithelial cells of one patient; in four patients, the gland maturity was low, not matching the cycle day, and thus a phase lag had developed. By TEM examination, we ascertained changes in secretory and ciliated cells in three patients (decreased amount or missing microvilli, irregular cilia in ciliated cells). SEM examination found pinopodes in five patients: three samples contained fully developed pinopodes—larger and completely smooth, with only some wrinkles; one sample contained regressing small pinopodes, with wrinkled surfaces; and one sample had both developed and regressing pinopodes. Conclusions: To conclude, our study shows that the endometrium of patients with poor IVF outcome has either significant changes in the morphology or the endometrial maturation is inhibited and a phase lag often develops. Our study shows that endometrial pinopodes are found throughout the mid-luteal phase up to day LH+10. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clinical Embryology and Reproductive Medicine)
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Open AccessCase Report Endoscopic Sclerotherapy with a Large Volume of High Concentration of Cyanoacrylate for Jejunal Variceal Bleeding bys Single-Balloon Enteroscopy
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
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Abstract
Jejunal varices are a rare manifestation of portal hypertension, and they are associated with a high mortality and poor prognosis when bleeding occurs. A bleeding jejunal varix is much more challenging to diagnose and manage because of its anatomic location. Herein, we describe
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Jejunal varices are a rare manifestation of portal hypertension, and they are associated with a high mortality and poor prognosis when bleeding occurs. A bleeding jejunal varix is much more challenging to diagnose and manage because of its anatomic location. Herein, we describe the case of a 62-year-old man with active jejunal variceal bleeding who presented with massive hematochezia and hypovolemic shock. He was treated successfully with a high volume and concentration of a glue mixture as endoscopic sclerotherapy using single-balloon enteroscopy in the intensive care unit. Enteroscopic sclerotherapy is an effective option for jejunal variceal bleeding. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Impact of the Uridine–Cytidine Kinase Like-1 Protein and IL28B rs12979860 and rs8099917 SNPs on the Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Cirrhotic Chronic Hepatitis C Patients—A Pilot Study
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 21 September 2018 / Published: 27 September 2018
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Background and objectives: The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the major causative agent of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the western world. The efficacy of surveillance programs for early detection of HCC is not satisfactory: many tumors are diagnosed at the late, incurable
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Background and objectives: The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the major causative agent of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the western world. The efficacy of surveillance programs for early detection of HCC is not satisfactory: many tumors are diagnosed at the late, incurable stages. Therefore, there is a need in reliable prognostic markers for the proper follow-up of HCV-positive patients. The aim of the present study was to assess the prognostic value of the uridine–cytidine kinase-like protein 1 (UCKL-1), a putative oncoprotein, together with genetically determined polymorphisms in the interleukin 28B (IL28B) gene (rs12979860, rs8099917) in the development of HCC in HCV-positive cirrhotic patients. Materials and Methods: We included 32 HCV cirrhotic patients, 21 (65.6%) of whom had HCC. The expression of UCKL-1 was assessed in liver tissue sections, using immunohistochemistry. For IL28B rs12979860 and rs8099917 genotype analysis, the corresponding genomic regions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with appropriate primers. Results: We have found that UCKL-1 expression was significantly increased in HCC (p = 0.003). The presence of rs8099917 TT single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) elevated the chances of HCC manifestation more than sevenfold (OR = 7.3, p = 0.0273). The presence of rs12979860 CC SNP also heightened HCC chances more than sevenfold (OR = 7.5, p = 0.0765). Moreover, in the HCC group, a combination of IL28B rs12979860 non-TT and rs8099917 TT genotypes was observed more often, compared with the non-HCC group. Other combinations of IL28B rs12979860 and rs8099917 SNIPs were associated with a reduced risk of HCC development, approximately at the same extent. Conclusions: The presence of IL28B rs8099917 TT and rs12979860 CC SNPs, but not the intensity of UCKL-1 expression, is strongly associated with increased chances of HCC development in HCV-positive cirrhotic patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Pre-Transplant Drop in Panel-Reactive Antibodies Titer Evaluated Using Complement-Dependent Cytotoxicity (PRA-CDC) and the Risk of Early Acute Rejection in Sensitized Kidney Transplant Recipients
Received: 1 August 2018 / Revised: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 18 September 2018 / Published: 20 September 2018
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Abstract
Background: The panel-reactive antibodies that use the complement-dependent cytotoxicity test (PRA-CDC) are still a standard method for monitoring the degree of immunization in kidney transplant candidates on active waiting lists in some countries, including Poland. The aim of this study was to
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Background: The panel-reactive antibodies that use the complement-dependent cytotoxicity test (PRA-CDC) are still a standard method for monitoring the degree of immunization in kidney transplant candidates on active waiting lists in some countries, including Poland. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the maximum and the last pre-transplant PRA titer on the percentage of positive cross-matches and rate of early acute rejection episodes. Material and methods: The retrospective analysis included 528 patients from two transplant centers. All patients were divided into three groups, depending on their peak and last pre-transplant PRA titers. There were 437 (82.8%) patients with peak PRA <20% (non-sensitized group, non-ST) and 91 (17.2%) patients with peak PRA >20%. Among the latter group, 38 had maintained PRA level >20% at the time of transplantation (sensitized patients, ST), whereas 53 had pre-transplant PRA ≤20% (previously sensitized patients, prev-ST). Results: The percentages of positive crossmatches were 76.9% in ST and 53.7% in prev-ST groups versus 18.4 in non-ST group (both p < 0.001). The acute rejection rates were 18.9, 17.6 and 6.8%, respectively (p < 0.001 for ST or prev-ST versus non-ST). The pre-transplant PRA titer drop did not decrease the risk of early acute rejection [OR = 1.09 (95% CI: 0.31–3.85)] in a multiple logistic regression analysis. The occurrences of primary graft non-function and delayed graft function were similar in all study groups. Conclusions: Previously immunized kidney transplant candidates even with substantial decrease in pre-transplant PRA-CDC levels are still at high immunological risk when compared with non-immunized patients, and they should receive lymphocyte-depleting induction therapy. Full article
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