Next Article in Journal
Impact of Gender and Age on Hyperthermia-Induced Changes in Respiration of Liver Mitochondria
Previous Article in Journal
Association between Adverse Effects and Parental Beliefs about Antiepileptic Medicines
Article Menu
Issue 4 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Medicina 2018, 54(4), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina54040061

Current Research on the Safety of Pyrethroids Used as Insecticides

1
Department of Pathobiochemistry and Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, L. Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University, 85-094 Torun, Poland
2
Department of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, L. Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University, 85-094 Torun, Poland
3
Department of Pharmacodynamics and Molecular Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, L. Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Nicolaus Copernicus University, 85-089 Torun, Poland
4
Department of Medical Biology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, L. Rydygier Collegium Medicum of Nicolaus Copernicus University, 85-092 Torun, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 24 August 2018 / Published: 28 August 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [533 KB, uploaded 28 August 2018]   |  

Abstract

Pyrethroids are synthetic derivatives of natural pyrethrins extracted from Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium. They are 2250 times more toxic to insects than to vertebrates due to insects’ smaller size, lower body temperature and more sensitive sodium channels. In particular, three pyrethroid compounds, namely deltamethrin, permethrin, and alpha-cypermethrin, are commonly used as insecticides and are recommended for in-home insect control because they are considered to be relatively non-toxic to humans in all stages of life. However, recent data show that they are not completely harmless to human health as they may enter the body through skin contact, by inhalation and food or water, and absorption level depending on the type of food. Permethrin seems to have an adverse effect on fertility, the immune system, cardiovascular and hepatic metabolism as well as enzymatic activity. Deltamethrin induces inflammation, nephro- and hepatotoxicity and influences the activity of antioxidant enzymes in tissues. Alpha-cypermethrin may impair immunity and act to increase glucose and lipid levels in blood. The aim of the review is to provide comprehensive information on potential hazards associated to human exposure to deltamethrin, permethrin and alpha-cypermethrin. The results of presented studies prove that the insecticides must be used with great caution. View Full-Text
Keywords: deltamethrin; permethrin; alpha-cypermethrin; insecticides; human health deltamethrin; permethrin; alpha-cypermethrin; insecticides; human health
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Chrustek, A.; Hołyńska-Iwan, I.; Dziembowska, I.; Bogusiewicz, J.; Wróblewski, M.; Cwynar, A.; Olszewska-Słonina, D. Current Research on the Safety of Pyrethroids Used as Insecticides. Medicina 2018, 54, 61.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Medicina EISSN 1010-660X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top