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Medicina, Volume 54, Issue 4 (September 2018) – 16 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Human papilloma virus (HPV) causes several sexually transmitted diseases. Although its ability to [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Malignant Glaucoma after Different Procedures Treated with Pars Plana Vitrectomy: A 10-Year Retrospective Study
Medicina 2018, 54(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina54040065 - 05 Sep 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 994
Abstract
Background and objectives: Despite established common risk factors, malignant glaucoma (MG) remains a rare condition with challenging management. We aimed to analyze differences in risk factors for MG after different surgeries and outcomes after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). Materials and Methods: This retrospective [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Despite established common risk factors, malignant glaucoma (MG) remains a rare condition with challenging management. We aimed to analyze differences in risk factors for MG after different surgeries and outcomes after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included cases of MG treated with PPV between January 2005 and December 2015 in the Department of Ophthalmology, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania. Results: A total of 39 cases were analyzed: 23 (59%) after cataract surgery, 13 (33.3%) after trabeculectomy, and 3 (7.7%) after other interventions. Characteristics among the groups did not differ. Intraocular lens refractive power was significantly higher in the cataract group, in which intraocular pressure (IOP) before MG was significantly greater in the affected eye. Normotension was achieved in 92.3%, and a normal anterior chamber in 75%. Additional measures included eye drops (n = 24), trabeculectomy (n = 5), bleb revision (n = 2), synechiotomy (n = 4), and cyclophotocoagulation (n = 1). The proportion of drop-free patients significantly increased after PPV compared with that before MG development (38.5% versus 15.4%). Complications were observed in 11 cases: choroidal detachments with spontaneous resolution (n = 2); retinal detachment (n = 1); constant mydriasis (n = 1), neovascular glaucoma (n = 1); obstruction of filtrating zone by iris (n = 1) and by blood clot (n = 1); posterior synechia formation causing IOP rise (n = 4 (all resolved after synechiotomy)). The cataract group experienced significantly fewer complications than the trabeculectomy group (17.4% vs. 53.8%, respectively). Conclusions: There were no differences in the risk of MG among the different surgeries. However, higher IOP in the predisposed eye (versus contra-lateral eye) could indicate additional risk of MG after cataract surgery. PPV afforded reliable treatment for MG and the possibility for glaucoma patients to discontinue topical treatment. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Regular Exercise and Functional Beverages on Changes in Body Weight and Waist Circumference in Healthy Japanese Subjects
Medicina 2018, 54(4), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina54040064 - 04 Sep 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1425
Abstract
Background and objectives: The effects on anthropometry of several lipid-related foods for specified health uses (FOSHU) approved in Japan are not well known. We examined the effects of regular exercise and lipid-related FOSHU beverages on changes in body weight (BW) and waist [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: The effects on anthropometry of several lipid-related foods for specified health uses (FOSHU) approved in Japan are not well known. We examined the effects of regular exercise and lipid-related FOSHU beverages on changes in body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC) among factory and office workers. Materials and Methods: A total of 3002 subjects aged 20 years or older (2497 men and 505 women) received health check-ups in 2015 and 2016 and completed a lifestyle questionnaire. The association between regular exercise or lipid-related FOSHU beverage intake and changes in BW or WC were evaluated using trend test and linear regression analysis. Results: Regular exercise (≥1/week) was reported by 774 subjects (25.8%), and regular consumption of lipid-related FOSHU beverages (≥1/week) was reported by 1168 subjects (38.9%). The significant association between lipid-related FOSHU beverage intake and changes in BW was only observed among subjects with regular exercise (p for trend = 0.042). In the multivariable analysis, sex, older age, baseline weight, baseline body mass index (BMI), and regular exercise behavior were significantly associated with smaller changes in BW (p < 0.05). In WC, only the baseline values of WC and BMI were associated with one-year changes of WC. Conclusions: The combination of regular exercise and lipid-related FOSHU may be effective in maintaining BW. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Impact of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction and Biomarkers on Pulmonary Hypertension in Patients with Severe Aortic Stenosis
Medicina 2018, 54(4), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina54040063 - 04 Sep 2018
Viewed by 969
Abstract
Background: Severe aortic stenosis (AS) complicated by pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with poor outcomes after surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR). There is still scarce information about predictors of secondary PH in this group of patients. Objectives: The aim of this [...] Read more.
Background: Severe aortic stenosis (AS) complicated by pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with poor outcomes after surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR). There is still scarce information about predictors of secondary PH in this group of patients. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic impact of biomarkers together with conventional Doppler echocardiographic parameters of left ventricular diastolic function on elevated pulmonary systolic pressure (PSP) in severe AS patients before surgical AVR. Methods: Sixty patients with severe isolated AS (aortic valve area <1 cm2) underwent echocardiography, N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) measurements before AVR. PSP, left ventricular ejection fraction (LV EF), parameters of LV diastolic function (E/E’ ratio, mitral valve deceleration time (MV DT) and left atrial (LA) volume) were evaluated. PH was defined as an estimated PSP ≥ 45 mmHg. Results: Of the 60 patients, 21.7% with severe isolated AS had PH with PSP ≥ 45 mmHg (58.5 ± 11.2 mmHg). LV EF did not differ between groups and was not related to an elevated PSP (50 ± 8 vs. 49 ± 8%, p = 0.58). Parameters of LV diastolic dysfunction (E/E’ ratio > 14 (OR 6.00; 95% CI, 1.41–25.48; p = 0.009), MV DT ≤ 177.5 ms (OR 9.31; 95% CI, 2.06–41.14; p = 0.001), LA volume > 100 mL (OR 9.70; 95% CI, 1.92–49.03; p = 0.002)) and biomarkers (NT-proBNP > 4060 ng/L (OR 12.54; 95% CI, 2.80–55.99; p < 0.001) and GDF-15 > 3393 pg/mL (OR 18.33; 95% CI, 2.39–140.39; p = 0.001)) were significantly associated with elevated PSP in severe AS. Conclusions: Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and elevated biomarkers levels could predict the development of pulmonary hypertension in patients with severe aortic stenosis. Elevation of biomarkers paired with worsening of LV diastolic dysfunction could help to stratify patients for earlier surgical treatment before the development of pulmonary hypertension. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Gender and Age on Hyperthermia-Induced Changes in Respiration of Liver Mitochondria
Medicina 2018, 54(4), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina54040062 - 31 Aug 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 899
Abstract
Aim: This study aimed to compare hyperthermia-induced changes in respiration and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in liver mitochondria derived from animals of different gender and age. Methods: The effects of hyperthermia (40–47 °C) on oxidation of different substrates and [...] Read more.
Aim: This study aimed to compare hyperthermia-induced changes in respiration and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in liver mitochondria derived from animals of different gender and age. Methods: The effects of hyperthermia (40–47 °C) on oxidation of different substrates and ROS production were estimated in mitochondria isolated from the liver of male and female rats of the 1–1.5, 3–4, or 6–7 months age. Results: Gender-dependent differences in response of respiration to hyperthermia were the highest at 3–4 months of age, less so at 6–7 months of age, and only minor at juvenile age. Mild hyperthermia (40–42 °C) stimulated pyruvate + malate oxidation in mitochondria of females, but inhibited in mitochondria of males in the 3–4 month age group. The resistance of mitochondrial membrane to hyperthermia was the highest at 3–4 month males, and the lowest in the 6–7 month age group. Inhibition of glutamate + malate oxidation by hyperthermia was caused by thermal inactivation of glutamate dehydrogenase. ROS generation at 37 °C was higher at 1–1.5 month of age, but the increase in ROS generation with rise in temperature in this age group was the smallest, and the strongest in 6–7 month old animals of both genders. Conclusions: The response to hyperthermia varies during the first 6–7 months of life of experimental animals: stronger gender dependence is characteristic at 3–4 months of age, while mitochondria from 6–7 months animals are less resistant to hyperthermia. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Current Research on the Safety of Pyrethroids Used as Insecticides
Medicina 2018, 54(4), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina54040061 - 28 Aug 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1290
Abstract
Pyrethroids are synthetic derivatives of natural pyrethrins extracted from Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium. They are 2250 times more toxic to insects than to vertebrates due to insects’ smaller size, lower body temperature and more sensitive sodium channels. In particular, three pyrethroid compounds, namely deltamethrin, [...] Read more.
Pyrethroids are synthetic derivatives of natural pyrethrins extracted from Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium. They are 2250 times more toxic to insects than to vertebrates due to insects’ smaller size, lower body temperature and more sensitive sodium channels. In particular, three pyrethroid compounds, namely deltamethrin, permethrin, and alpha-cypermethrin, are commonly used as insecticides and are recommended for in-home insect control because they are considered to be relatively non-toxic to humans in all stages of life. However, recent data show that they are not completely harmless to human health as they may enter the body through skin contact, by inhalation and food or water, and absorption level depending on the type of food. Permethrin seems to have an adverse effect on fertility, the immune system, cardiovascular and hepatic metabolism as well as enzymatic activity. Deltamethrin induces inflammation, nephro- and hepatotoxicity and influences the activity of antioxidant enzymes in tissues. Alpha-cypermethrin may impair immunity and act to increase glucose and lipid levels in blood. The aim of the review is to provide comprehensive information on potential hazards associated to human exposure to deltamethrin, permethrin and alpha-cypermethrin. The results of presented studies prove that the insecticides must be used with great caution. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Association between Adverse Effects and Parental Beliefs about Antiepileptic Medicines
Medicina 2018, 54(4), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina54040060 - 28 Aug 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 906
Abstract
Background and Aim: Adverse effects are common in children treated with antiepileptic medications and may affect parental beliefs about treatment. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between adverse effects and parental beliefs about antiepileptic drugs used for the treatment [...] Read more.
Background and Aim: Adverse effects are common in children treated with antiepileptic medications and may affect parental beliefs about treatment. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between adverse effects and parental beliefs about antiepileptic drugs used for the treatment of their children. Methods: The study was performed at the University Children’s Hospital, Belgrade, Serbia from 2013–2015. Parents of children treated with valproic acid, carbamazepine or lamotrigine, were eligible. They were asked to fill in the Beliefs about Medications Questionnaire (BMQ) and The Liverpool Adverse Events Profile (LAEP). Results: Parents of 127 children (average age 9.88 ± 4.16 years) of whom 111 had epilepsy (67 generalized, 44 focal) and 16 with febrile seizures participated in the study. Nervousness and/or agitation, weight gain, restlessness, headache, difficulty in concentrating, feeling of aggression and upset stomach were most frequent adverse effects, reported in 37% of the population. BMQ-specific necessity scores significantly correlated with parental education; parents with elementary school showed lower scores than those with higher education. The presence of difficulty in concentrating of their child was associated with higher BMQ concern scores (20.73 ± 4.25 vs. 18.99 ± 3.60, p = 0.043) as well as necessity scores (18.42 ± 3.31 vs. 16.40 ± 2.73, p = 0.017). Higher scores of BMQ-general overuse were reported in the presence of a headache (8.79 ± 2.81 vs. 7.64 ± 2.72, p = 0.027). Conclusions: The main finding of our study is that parental beliefs about antiepileptic drugs were associated with the presence of adverse effects. Understanding this relationship could allow physicians and pharmacists to structure better educational programs for parents of children treated with antiepileptic drugs. Education should be more focused towards understanding the adverse effects of antiepileptics which could alleviate parental concerns and strengthen their beliefs about the necessity of medication use in their children. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Clinical and Environmental Predictors of Health-Related Quality of Life in Lithuanian Children and Adolescents with Spina Bifida: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of a Nationally Represented Sample
Medicina 2018, 54(4), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina54040059 - 28 Aug 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 849
Abstract
Background and objectives: In pediatric chronic health conditions, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a useful indicator of health, development, and well-being. The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of clinical and environmental factors on the HRQOL of children [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: In pediatric chronic health conditions, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a useful indicator of health, development, and well-being. The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of clinical and environmental factors on the HRQOL of children and adolescents with spina bifida (SB). Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study of the sample of 99 children and adolescents with SB aged 5 to 17 years. The questionnaires used in the study were the Spina Bifida Health-Related Quality of Life instrument (HRQOL-SB), and the Participation and Environment Measure for Children and Youth. Medical data were obtained from the medical records and the clinical examination. Results: A multivariate linear regression revealed that the most potent predictors of the HRQOL in children with SB were the community overall environmental supports (β = 0.504; p = 0.0001), a number of health conditions (β = −0.395; p = 0.0001), access to personal transportation (β = 0.236; p = 0.023), and supplies (β = 0.181; p = 0.031), explaining 80.3% of the variance in the SB-HRQOL scores. The most significant predictors of the HRQOL in adolescents were a number of health conditions (β = −0.387; p = 0.0001), cognitive demands of activities at home (β = 0.345; p = 0.0001), supplies (β = 0.267; p = 0.0001), money (β = 0.303; p = 0.0001), physical layout at school (β = 0.188; p = 0.008), and access to public transportation (β = 0.206; p = 0.019), explaining 89.5% of the variance in the SB-HRQOL scores. Conclusions: Both clinical and environmental factors determined the HRQOL of children and adolescents with SB. Environmental supports and resources contributed to HRQOL more than medical problems, especially in adolescents. The number of associated medical problems, reflecting disease severity, was the more potent clinical predictor compared to an individual health problem. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Atrial Electromechanical Delay to Predict Atrial Fibrillation in Hemodialysis Patients
Medicina 2018, 54(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina54040058 - 25 Aug 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 897
Abstract
Background and objective: Prevalence of atrial fibrillation is higher in hemodialysis patients as compared to the general population. Atrial electromechanical delay is known as a significant predictor of atrial fibrillation. In this study, we aimed to reveal the relationship between atrial electromechanical [...] Read more.
Background and objective: Prevalence of atrial fibrillation is higher in hemodialysis patients as compared to the general population. Atrial electromechanical delay is known as a significant predictor of atrial fibrillation. In this study, we aimed to reveal the relationship between atrial electromechanical delay and attacks of atrial fibrillation. Materials and methods: The study included 77 hemodialysis patients over 18 years of age giving written consent to participate in the study. The patients were divided into two groups based on the results of 24-h Holter Electrocardiogram (Holter ECG) as the ones having attacks of atrial fibrillation and the others without any attack of atrial fibrillation. Standard echocardiographic measurements were taken from all patients. Additionally, atrial conduction times were measured by tissue Doppler technique and atrial electromechanical delays were calculated. Results: Intra- and interatrial electromechanical delay were found as significantly lengthened in the group of patients with attacks of atrial fibrillation (p = 0.03 and p < 0.001 respectively). The optimal cut-off time for interatrial electromechanical delay to predict atrial fibrillation was >21 ms with a specificity of 79.3% and a sensitivity of 73.7% (area under the curve 0.820; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.716–0.898). In the multivariate logistic regression model, interatrial electromechanical delay (odds ratio = 1.230; 95% CI, 1.104–1.370; p < 0.001) and hypertension (odds ratio = 4.525; 95% CI, 1.042–19.651; p = 0.044) were also associated with atrial fibrillation after adjustment for variables found to be statistically significant in univariate analysis and correlated with interatrial electromechanical delay. Conclusions: Interatrial electromechanical delay is independently related with the attacks of atrial fibrillation detected on Holter ECG records in hemodialysis patients. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Education Level of Older Patients on Polypharmacy, Potentially Inappropriate Medications Listed in Beer’s Criteria, and Unplanned Hospitalization: A Cross-Sectional Study in Lahore, Pakistan
Medicina 2018, 54(4), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina54040057 - 24 Aug 2018
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1132
Abstract
Objective: To evaluate influence of education level of older patients on polypharmacy, potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) listed in Beer’s Criteria, and unplanned hospitalization. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among older people aged ≥65 years between 1 December 2017 and 28 [...] Read more.
Objective: To evaluate influence of education level of older patients on polypharmacy, potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) listed in Beer’s Criteria, and unplanned hospitalization. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among older people aged ≥65 years between 1 December 2017 and 28 February 2018. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were employed. Results: Among 385 older patients, 88.8% were prescribed PIMs and 56.4% underwent PIMs associated unplanned hospitalization. Older people were less exposed to polypharmacy or excessive polypharmacy as their education levels increased (no formal education vs. primary vs. secondary vs. tertiary, 74% vs. 69.8% vs. 60.5% vs. 58.1%). Patients having higher education were also accompanied by significantly lower prescription of PIMs (no formal education vs. primary vs. secondary vs. tertiary, 96% vs. 87.3% vs. 84.5% vs. 79.1%) as well as unplanned hospitalization (no formal education vs. primary vs. secondary vs. tertiary, 64.7% vs. 76.2% vs. 40.3% vs. 46.5%). Results of regression analysis revealed that no formal education (OR = 1.202, 95% CI = 1.032–2.146, p-value = 0.003) and primary education level (OR = 1.175, 95% CI = 1.014–1.538, p-value = 0.039) were significantly associated with the use of polypharmacy among older people. On the other hand, no formal education was significantly associated with the prescription of PIMs (OR = 1.898, 95% CI = 1.151–2.786, p-value = 0.007). Furthermore, older people with no formal education (OR = 1.402, 95% CI = 1.123–1.994, p-value = 0.010) and primary education level (OR = 1.775, 95% CI = 1.281–3.018, p-value = <0.001) were significantly more likely to undergo unplanned hospitalization. Conclusions: Patients having low literacy level are more likely to receive PIMs, polypharmacy, and undergo unplanned hospitalization in comparison to highly educated patients. Hence, promotion of health literacy for patients is crucial to overcome these problems. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Assessment of Immature Granulocytes Percentage to Predict Severe Bacterial Infection in Latvian Children: An Analysis of Secondary Data
Medicina 2018, 54(4), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina54040056 - 10 Aug 2018
Viewed by 1125
Abstract
Background: Detection of small proportion of serious bacterial infections (SBI) with a potentially life threating course in a large group of children with fever admitted to emergency department (ED) is still complicated. Measurement of immature granulocytes (IG) percentage may be used as [...] Read more.
Background: Detection of small proportion of serious bacterial infections (SBI) with a potentially life threating course in a large group of children with fever admitted to emergency department (ED) is still complicated. Measurement of immature granulocytes (IG) percentage may be used as a marker of bacterial infections. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the IG percentage is a useful additional predictive marker of SBI. Methods: This study included 258 children with febrile infections that were admitted to the ED. Clinical follow-up, microbiological and radiological tests were used as reference standards for the definition of SBI. Study population was categorized into two groups: (1) infected patients with no suspicion of SBI (n = 75); (2) patients with suspicion of SBI (n = 183). IG percentage, white blood cell count (WBC), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were analyzed from the first routine blood samples at hospital admission. Results: A statistically significant difference in IG percentage levels was observed in children with SBI and those without—the mean IG percentage was 1.2% for the SBI group, 0.3% for those without SBI. The cutoff level of IG percentage to predict SBI was 0.45 (84% specificity, 66% sensitivity, 90% positive predictive value). We combine variables and evaluate their additive values. The sensitivity of WBC to detected SBI improved from 74% to 85% when IG percentage was added to the prediction models. When CRP, WBC, and IG percentage were combined, the sensitivity to predict SBI increased to 93%, the specificity to 86% (95% CI 77%–93%). Receiver operator characteristic analysis to predict SBI showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.80 for IG percentage. Conclusion: Addition of IG percentage to traditionally used markers of SBI as WBC and CRP may help to identify children with serious bacterial infections. Furthermore, IG percentage can be rapidly obtained from the traditional full blood count without any extra sampling and costs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Sleep-Prolonging Effect of Lagenaria vulgaris and Cucurbita pepo Extracts on Pentobarbital-Induced Sleep and Possible Mechanisms of Action
Medicina 2018, 54(4), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina54040055 - 31 Jul 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1084
Abstract
Introduction: Sleeplessness is the most common sleep disorder. In this study, the hypnotic effect of macerated (HAME) and soxhlet (HASE) extract of Lagenaria vulgaris (fruit and seed) and Cucurbita pepo (fruit) were studied in mice. Methods: Extracts and fractions were administered intra-peritoneally (i.p.) [...] Read more.
Introduction: Sleeplessness is the most common sleep disorder. In this study, the hypnotic effect of macerated (HAME) and soxhlet (HASE) extract of Lagenaria vulgaris (fruit and seed) and Cucurbita pepo (fruit) were studied in mice. Methods: Extracts and fractions were administered intra-peritoneally (i.p.) in mice 30 min before the sodium pentobarbital (30 mg/kg, i.p.). Moreover, the influence of flumazenil or naloxone on the hypnotic effects of the extract and its toxic effects were evaluated. Results: The HAME and HASE of C. pepo prolonged the pentobarbital-induced sleep duration at dose of 200 mg/kg. The HAME of L. vulgaris (fruit) at dose of 200 mg/kg increased the sleeping time. The HAME and HASE of L. vulgaris (seed) increased sleep duration at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg. Besides, flumazenil (2 mg/kg) reversed the effects of both diazepam (P < 0.001 vs. diazepam group), 200 mg/kg of HAME of C. pepo and 50 mg/kg of HAME and HASE of L. vulgaris (seed). All fractions especially ethyl-acetate fraction (EAF) of L. vulgaris (seed) increased the sleep duration. Naloxone reversed the hypnotic effect of HAME and HASE of L. vulgaris (seed). The extracts showed no neurotoxic effects on PC12 and L929 cell lines. Conclusion: The results showed that L. vulgaris (seed and fruit) and C. pepo potentiated pentobarbital hypnosis without toxic influence. The hypnotic effects of L. vulgaris seed was greater than its fruit and C. pepo. The GABA and opioid receptors may play role in the sleep-induction of L. vulgaris seed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Serum and Tissue HIF-2 Alpha Expression in CIN, N-Acetyl Cysteine, and Sildenafil-Treated Rat Models: An Experimental Study
Medicina 2018, 54(4), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina54040054 - 30 Jul 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1058
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), is acute renal damage due to contrast agents. This study is conducted to evaluate serum and renal heterodimeric nuclear transcription factor (HIF)-2 alpha levels and its tissue expression in contrast-induced nephropathy, and in N-acetyl cysteine [...] Read more.
Background and Objectives: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), is acute renal damage due to contrast agents. This study is conducted to evaluate serum and renal heterodimeric nuclear transcription factor (HIF)-2 alpha levels and its tissue expression in contrast-induced nephropathy, and in N-acetyl cysteine (NAC)-and Sildenafil-treated rat models. Materials/Methods: This randomized, controlled, interventional animal study was conducted on Wistar rats. Rats (n = 36) were randomly assigned to four groups: control (n = 9), CIN group (n = 9), CIN + NAC group (n = 9), and sildenafil (n = 9). The rat model was used to form iohexol-originated CIN. During the modeling, prophylactic treatment was performed at the 24th and 48th h. After 48 h of modeling, blood, urine, and tissue samples were obtained for biochemical analyses. HIF-2-α levels were measured in renal tissue, serum, and urine samples. Renal sections were also performed for histopathologic and immunohistochemical evaluations of renal injury and HIF-2-α expression. Results: In the CIN model, HIF-2α levels and other biochemical parameters were significantly increased (p < 0.01). Both sildenafil and NAC efficiently decreased renal damage due to contrast agents, as shown in histopathologic examinations (p < 0.05). Similarly, after treatment with sildenafil and NAC, HIF-2α levels were significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The current study shows that serum and tissue HIF-2α levels decrease in CIN. Besides, the levels and tissue expression of HIF-2α decrease with both NAC and sildenafil treatments. With further studies, HIF-2α can be investigated as a biomarker of CIN and can be used in the follow-up of patients with CIN. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Midbody: From the Regulator of Cytokinesis to Postmitotic Signaling Organelle
Medicina 2018, 54(4), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina54040053 - 30 Jul 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 999
Abstract
Faithful cell division is crucial for successful proliferation, differentiation, and development of cells, tissue homeostasis, and preservation of genomic integrity. Cytokinesis is a terminal stage of cell division, leaving two genetically identical daughter cells connected by an intercellular bridge (ICB) containing the midbody [...] Read more.
Faithful cell division is crucial for successful proliferation, differentiation, and development of cells, tissue homeostasis, and preservation of genomic integrity. Cytokinesis is a terminal stage of cell division, leaving two genetically identical daughter cells connected by an intercellular bridge (ICB) containing the midbody (MB), a large protein-rich organelle, in the middle. Cell division may result in asymmetric or symmetric abscission of the ICB. In the first case, the ICB is severed on the one side of the MB, and the MB is inherited by the opposite daughter cell. In the second case, the MB is cut from both sides, expelled into the extracellular space, and later it can be engulfed by surrounding cells. Cells with lower autophagic activity, such as stem cells and cancer stem cells, are inclined to accumulate MBs. Inherited MBs affect cell polarity, modulate intra- and intercellular communication, enhance pluripotency of stem cells, and increase tumorigenic potential of cancer cells. In this review, we briefly summarize the latest knowledge on MB formation, inheritance, degradation, and function, and in addition, present and discuss our recent findings on the electrical and chemical communication of cells connected through the MB-containing ICB. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Daily Cisplatin and Weekly Docetaxel versus Weekly Cisplatin Intra-Arterial Chemoradiotherapy for Late T2-3 Tongue Cancer: A Pilot and Feasibility Trial
Medicina 2018, 54(4), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina54040052 - 30 Jul 2018
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 972
Abstract
Background and objectives: The aim of present study was to compare the treatment results of daily cisplatin (CDDP), weekly docetaxel (DOC) intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy (DIACRT) regimen and weekly CDDP intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy (WIACRT) for patients with tongue [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: The aim of present study was to compare the treatment results of daily cisplatin (CDDP), weekly docetaxel (DOC) intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy (DIACRT) regimen and weekly CDDP intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy (WIACRT) for patients with tongue cancer. Materials and Methods: Between January 2007 and December 2016, a total of 11 patients treated with WIACRT and 45 patients treated with DIACRT were enrolled in the present study. In the DIACRT group, 25 patients had late T2, and 20 patients had T3. A total of nine patients had late T2 and two had T3 in WIACRT (p = NS). In DIACRT, the treatment schedule consisted of intra-arterial chemotherapy (DOC, total 60 mg/m2; CDDP, total 150 mg/m2) and daily concurrent radiotherapy (RT) (total, 60 Gy). In WIACRT, the treatment schedule consisted of intra-arterial chemotherapy (CDDP, total 360 mg/m2) and daily concurrent RT (total, 60 Gy). Results: The median follow-up periods for DIACRT and WIACRT were 61 and 66 months, respectively. The five-year local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) rate were 94.5% and 89.6% for the DIACRT group, and 60.6% and 63.6% for the WIACRT group, respectively. The LC rate and OS of the DIACRT group were significantly higher than those of the WIACRT group. As regards toxicities, no treatment-related deaths were observed during the follow-up periods in both groups. Conclusions: DIACRT was found to be feasible and effective for patients with tongue cancer and could become a new treatment modality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Topical Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Citrullus colocynthis Extract Cream in Rats
Medicina 2018, 54(4), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina54040051 - 29 Jul 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1422
Abstract
Background and objectives:Citrullus colocynthis (CC), known as bitter apple, is used to treat diabetes in Iranian traditional medicine. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of CC cream in rats. Materials and Methods: The carrageenan-induced edema [...] Read more.
Background and objectives:Citrullus colocynthis (CC), known as bitter apple, is used to treat diabetes in Iranian traditional medicine. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of CC cream in rats. Materials and Methods: The carrageenan-induced edema in a rat hind paw was carried out to evaluate the topical anti-inflammatory effect of the CC fruit extract cream (2–8%) and the tissue levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were estimated by using a commercial ELISA kit. The topical antinociceptive activity of CC cream (2–8%) was evaluated in the rat formalin test. To determine the role of opioid receptors in the local antinociceptive effect of the CC cream, naloxone (20 μg/paw, i.pl.), a non-selective opioid antagonist, was used. Results: The results showed that the CC cream (2–8%) dose-dependently reduced the carrageenan-induced paw edema and reversed the changes in the level of TNF-α and IL-6 due to carrageenan-induced edema (p < 0.01). The anti-inflammatory effect of CC cream 8% was comparable to that of hydrocortisone ointment 1%. Furthermore, the application of CC cream (2–8%) dose-dependently inhibited both first and second phases of the formalin test (p < 0.05). The antinociceptive effect of the CC cream (8%) was comparable to that of methyl salicylate cream 30%. Moreover, the administration of naloxone significantly reversed the topical antinociceptive effect of the CC cream (p < 0.05). Conclusions: For the first time, this study indicated that the topical application of CC cream possesses significant anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities in animal models, which were probably mediated by opioid receptors and the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6). Thus, the CC cream can be used to treat inflammatory pain and inflammatory diseases. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) and Fertilization: A Mini Review
Medicina 2018, 54(4), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina54040050 - 27 Jul 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1569
Abstract
Human papilloma virus (HPV) is one of the most prevalent viral sexually transmitted diseases. The ability of HPV to induce malignancy in the anogenital tract and stomato-pharyngeal cavity is well documented. Moreover, HPV infection may also affect reproductive health and fertility. Although, the [...] Read more.
Human papilloma virus (HPV) is one of the most prevalent viral sexually transmitted diseases. The ability of HPV to induce malignancy in the anogenital tract and stomato-pharyngeal cavity is well documented. Moreover, HPV infection may also affect reproductive health and fertility. Although, the impact of HPV on female fertility has not been thoroughly studied it has been found also to have an impact on semen parameters. Relative information can be obtained from studies investigating the relationship between HPV and pregnancy success. Furthermore, there is an ongoing debate whether HPV alters the efficacy of assisted reproductive technologies. An association between HPV and assisted reproductive technologies (ART) programs has been reported. Nevertheless, due to conflicting data and the small number of existing studies further research is required. It remains to be clarified whether HPV detection and genotyping could be included in the diagnostic procedures in couples undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intrauterine insemination (IUI) treatments. Vaccination of both genders against HPV can reduce the prevalence of HPV infection and eliminate its implications on human fertility. The aim of the present mini-review is to reiterate the association between HPV and human fertility through a systematic literature review. Full article
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