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Typhoid Fever Diagnosis in Endemic Countries: A Clog in the Wheel of Progress?

1
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Federal University Birnin Kebbi, P.M.B. 1157 Kalgo, Kebbi State, Nigeria
2
Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu 400241, Nigeria
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2018, 54(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina54020023
Received: 7 March 2018 / Revised: 17 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 25 April 2018
Typhoid fever causes significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries, with inaccurate estimates in some countries affected, especially those situated in Sub-Saharan Africa. Disease burden assessment is limited by lack of a high degree of sensitivity and specificity by many current rapid diagnostic tests. Some of the new technologies, such as PCR and proteomics, may also be useful but are difficult for low-resource settings to apply as point-of-care diagnostics. Weak laboratory surveillance systems may also contribute to the spread of multidrug resistant Salmonella serovar Typhi across endemic areas. In addition, most typhoid-endemic countries employ serological tests that have low sensitivity and specificity making diagnosis unreliable. Here we review currently available typhoid fever diagnostics, and advances in serodiagnosis of S. Typhi. View Full-Text
Keywords: Typhoid fever; S. Typhi; serodiagnosis; multidrug resistance; laboratory Typhoid fever; S. Typhi; serodiagnosis; multidrug resistance; laboratory
MDPI and ACS Style

Ajibola, O.; Mshelia, M.B.; Gulumbe, B.H.; Eze, A.A. Typhoid Fever Diagnosis in Endemic Countries: A Clog in the Wheel of Progress? Medicina 2018, 54, 23.

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