Next Article in Journal
Giant Peptic Ulcer Hemorrhages: Epidemiology, Treatment, and Outcome in the Teaching Hospital of Tartu
Previous Article in Journal
Curcumin Effect on Copper Transport in HepG2 Cells
Article Menu
Issue 2 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Medicina 2018, 54(2), 15;

Smoking-Attributable Direct Healthcare Expenditure in Lithuania: A Prevalence-Based Annual Cost Approach

Health Research Institute, Faculty of Public Health, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Tilžės g. 18, LT-47181 Kaunas, Lithuania
Ministry of Health of The Republic of Lithuania, Vilniaus g. 33, LT-01506 Vilnius, Lithuania
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 February 2018 / Revised: 31 March 2018 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published: 12 April 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [301 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]


Introduction: The estimates of the economic burden of smoking provide the basis for a comprehensive assessment of the overall economic impact and evidence for potential public health policy intervention by the government. The aim of this paper is to estimate the smoking-attributable direct healthcare expenditure covered by the Compulsory Health Insurance Fund (CHIF) in Lithuania in 2013. Methods: A prevalence-based and disease-specific annual cost approach was applied to 25 smoking-related diseases or disease categories. Our analysis included only direct government healthcare expenditure (reimbursed by CHIF), including: smoking-attributable outpatient and inpatient care services, medical rehabilitation, reimbursable and publicly procured pharmaceuticals and medical aids, the emergency medical aid (ambulance) service, nursing, and expensive tests and procedures. The smoking-attributable expenditure on the above-mentioned healthcare services was calculated by multiplying the total annual expenditure by the corresponding smoking attributable fractions (SAFs). Results: The total smoking-attributable government expenditure amounted to €37.4 million in 2013. This represented 3% of the total CHIF budget in 2013. Smoking-attributable expenditure on inpatient care and medical rehabilitation services was two times higher for male smokers, than for female smokers. Conclusions: Smoking imposes a significant preventable financial cost within the budget of the Lithuanian healthcare system. A quantitative estimation of smoking related healthcare costs could provide an incentive for the development of smoking cessation services, with additional attention towards male smokers, as well as an important focus on smoking prevention among children and youths. View Full-Text
Keywords: smoking; healthcare; expenditure; economic cost smoking; healthcare; expenditure; economic cost
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Liutkutė, V.; Štelemėkas, M.; Veryga, A. Smoking-Attributable Direct Healthcare Expenditure in Lithuania: A Prevalence-Based Annual Cost Approach. Medicina 2018, 54, 15.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Medicina EISSN 1010-660X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top