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Medicina 2018, 54(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina54020013

Development of the Lithuanian Version of Sniffin’ Sticks 12 Odor Identification Test

Department of Neurology, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, 44307 Kaunas, Lithuania
Present address: Department of Dermatology, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, 44307 Kaunas, Lithuania.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 5 April 2018 / Accepted: 9 April 2018 / Published: 11 April 2018
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Abstract

Background: Evaluation of smell function is essential especially in cases of gradual deterioration, e.g., in neurodegenerative diseases, where rates of unawareness of the disorder are high and the importance of screening for olfactory dysfunction is increasing. To date, none of the tests for evaluation of olfactory dysfunction has been validated in Lithuania. The aim of the study was to develop a Lithuanian version of Sniffin’ Sticks 12 (SS12) odor identification test. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in 4 stages. The first stage included translation and back-translation from German, pilot group testing and language adaptation of the original SS12 test. In the second stage a survey group of 99 subjects was questioned for familiarity with the descriptors, used in the original version of the test. In the third stage after replacement of the least familiar distracters, a modified version of SS12 was created. Original and modified versions of SS12 were tested on 112 and 119 healthy subjects accordingly. The fourth stage of the study proved necessary as neither of the two SS12 versions turned out to be valid. After another round of replacement of the misleading distracters the second modified version of SS12 was created and it was tested on 115 healthy subjects. Results: Unsatisfactory correct identification rates of less than 75 percent in the same one item (lemon) were observed using both original and modified SS12 versions. With the second modification of distracters of SS12, identification of lemon increased significantly and overcame 75 percent. The decrease of SS12 scores in relation to age was ascertained in the study sample. Gender and smoking status did not prove to be independent predictors of SS12 scores in multiple linear regression analysis. Conclusion: The study presents an olfactory testing tool, which is adapted and modified culturally for use in the Lithuanian population. View Full-Text
Keywords: smell; validation studies; olfaction disorders; healthy volunteers; Lithuania smell; validation studies; olfaction disorders; healthy volunteers; Lithuania
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Čičelienė, J.; Vaičys, Ž.; Rastenytė, D. Development of the Lithuanian Version of Sniffin’ Sticks 12 Odor Identification Test. Medicina 2018, 54, 13.

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