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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
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The clinical significance of endocardial endothelial dysfunction

Department of Physiology, Medical Faculty Kosovska Mitrovica, University of Pristina, ul. Anri Dinana bb, Kosovska Mitrovica, Serbia
Medicina 2017, 53(5), 295-302;
Received: 13 February 2017 / Revised: 7 August 2017 / Accepted: 29 August 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
Endocardial endothelium (EE) is essential in the embryonic development of the heart, the optimal contractility and rhythm as well as the remodeling of the heart. Endocardial endothelium affect the contractility of cardiomyocytes through paracrine signaling substances such as nitric oxide (NO), endothelin (ET-1), prostaglandins (PGI2, PGF2, PGE2) and angiotensin II (ANG II). Typical lesions of endocardial endothelium have been described in atrial fibrillation, ischemia/reperfusion injury, cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, sepsis, myocardial infarction, inflammation and thrombosis. In patients with atrial fibrillation, there can be a systemic endothelial dysfunction that combines endocardial and vascular endothelial dysfunction and leads to increased hemodynamic load of the left atrium and increased synthesis and release of natriuretic peptides, angiotensin II, aldosterone and growth factors from the atrial myocardium. A dysfunction of endothelial cells in the local inflammatory status can lead to increased plaque vulnerability, which contributes to plaque rupture and favors the formation of thrombus. Preserving the endocardial-myocardial integrity plays a significant role in the prevention of a coronary artery disease. Endocardial endothelial dysfunction is, similarly to coronary endothelial dysfunction, an early event that leads to the progression of heart failure. Multimarker strategy, that would include a different set of biomarkers, could significantly help in the assessment of patients with cardiovascular diseases. The challenge lays in finding new therapeutic strategies that would, by preserving endothelial function, prevent the onset of cardiovascular diseases.
Keywords: Endocardial endothelium; Dysfunction; Heart failure; Nitric oxide; Endocardial endothelial cells Endocardial endothelium; Dysfunction; Heart failure; Nitric oxide; Endocardial endothelial cells
MDPI and ACS Style

Smiljic, S. The clinical significance of endocardial endothelial dysfunction. Medicina 2017, 53, 295-302.

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