Although the association between blood pressure, serum lipids and cancer risk has been investigated, the results are controversial. The aim of this literature review was to examine the epidemiological evidence and provide overview of the association between blood pressure, serum lipids and cancer risk. The arterial hypertension is closely linked with renal cell cancer development. Risk of renal cell cancer was 2–4 times higher for persons with arterial hypertension, independently of sex. In some studies arterial hypertension as one of the components of the metabolic syndrome, was associated with a higher risk of colorectal, prostate cancer and malignant melanoma. Studies suggest that a higher total serum cholesterol level is linked with higher risk of colorectum, colon, prostate and testicular cancer and lower risk of stomach, liver and hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues cancer. There was positive association between serum triglycerides and esophageal, colorectal, lung, renal, thyroid cancer. Given that hypertension is a common risk factor worldwide and its control remains inadequate, our analysis supports the relevance of public health programs aimed at reducing hypertension to reduce the incidence of a number of cancers including renal cell cancer. Effective cholesterol control may lower the risk of cancer, but further studies with longer follow-up and repeated measurements of cholesterol and other lipids are needed.