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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

Smoking during pregnancy in association with maternal emotional well-being

1
Department of Health Psychology, Faculty of Public Health, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania
2
Health Research Institute, Faculty of Public Health, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania
3
Department of General Psychology, Psychological Innovations and Research Training Center, Faculty of Philosophy, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania
4
Department of Neonatology, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2016, 52(2), 132-138; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medici.2016.02.003
Received: 2 October 2014 / Revised: 11 February 2016 / Accepted: 23 February 2016 / Published: 3 March 2016
Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate psychosocial predictors of smoking during pregnancy.
Materials and methods: It was a cross-sectional analysis of a prospective birth-cohort study. The participants were 514 mothers of full-term infants. Women completed questionnaires during hospital stay after delivery. Questionnaire included items on sociodemographic characteristics, planning and emotional acceptance of pregnancy, reproductive history, health-related behavior, emotional well-being, and relationships with a partner.
Results: Smoking during pregnancy was reported by 14.8% of the participants. Prenatal smoking was associated with secondary or lower education, maternal age less than 20 years, childbirth outside of marriage, history of elective abortion, unplanned pregnancy, lack of positive emotional acceptance of pregnancy by mother and father, emotional distress and alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Smoking during pregnancy remained significantly associated with prenatal alcohol consumption, previous elective abortion, and lack of positive emotional acceptance of pregnancy by mother even after adjustment for maternal age, education, and family structure.
Conclusions: Results support an idea of complexity of the relationships among smoking, alcohol use, and emotional well-being. Lack of positive emotional acceptance of pregnancy by mother and history of elective abortions can be considered as possible associates of smoking during pregnancy and suggest that strengthening of positive attitudes toward motherhood could add to lower smoking rates among pregnant women.
Keywords: Pregnancy; Smoking; Alcohol consumption; Elective abortion; Pregnancy acceptance Pregnancy; Smoking; Alcohol consumption; Elective abortion; Pregnancy acceptance
MDPI and ACS Style

Širvinskienė, G.; Žemaitienė, N.; Jusienė, R.; Šmigelskas, K.; Veryga, A.; Markūnienė, E. Smoking during pregnancy in association with maternal emotional well-being. Medicina 2016, 52, 132-138.

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