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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
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Moving into the wide clinical spectrum of consciousness disorders: Pearls, perils and pitfalls

IRCCS Neurolesi ‘‘Bonino Pulejo’’ Center, Messina, Italy
Department of Biomedical Sciences and Morphological and Functional Images, University of Messina, Messina, Italy
Neurologic Unit, University Polyclinic, Messina, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2016, 52(1), 11-18;
Received: 20 March 2015 / Revised: 21 November 2015 / Accepted: 6 January 2016 / Published: 15 January 2016
The last few years have been characterized by a growing interest of the medical and scientific world for the field of consciousness and its related disorders. Medically speaking, conscious- ness can be defined as the state of awareness of self and environment and the alertness to external stimulation, besides responsiveness to inner need.
Transient loss of consciousness can be due to alterations in cerebral blood flow leading to fainting or syncope, migraine, metabolic dysfunctions, unexpected intracranial pressure increases, epileptic seizures, and sleep disorders. Chronic disorders of consciousness are a tragic success of high-technology treatment, in an attempt to maintain or reestablish brain function, which is to be considered as the main goal of therapeutics. Management of vegetative or a minimally conscious state individuals involves charily getting the right diagnosis with an evidence-based prognosis, also taking into account the medical, ethical, and legal key factors of the ideal treatment. This paper is aimed at exploring the wide spectrum of consciousness disorders and their clinical differential diagnosis, with particular regards to those with a negative impact on patient and their caregiver quality of life, including epilepsy, sleep disorders, and vegetative/minimally conscious state.
Keywords: Consciousness; Sleep; Coma; Vegetative state; Minimally conscious state Consciousness; Sleep; Coma; Vegetative state; Minimally conscious state
MDPI and ACS Style

Calabrò, R.S.; Milardi, D.; Cacciola, A.; Marra, A.; Digangi, G.; Casella, C.; Manuli, A.; De Luca, R.; Silvestri, R.; Bramanti, P. Moving into the wide clinical spectrum of consciousness disorders: Pearls, perils and pitfalls. Medicina 2016, 52, 11-18.

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