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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

Nutritional habits among high-performance endurance athletes

Institute of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania
Lithuanian Olympic Sports Center, Vilnius, Lithuania
Scientific Sports Institute, Lithuanian University of Educational Sciences, Vilnius, Lithuania
Lithuanian Sports Medicine Centre, Vilnius, Lithuania
Department of Physiology, Biochemistry, Microbiology and Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2015, 51(6), 351-362;
Received: 16 March 2014 / Accepted: 8 November 2015 / Published: 18 November 2015
Background and objective: For athletes, the main purpose of nutrition is to ensure the compensation of increased energy consumption and the need for nutrients in the athlete's body, thereby enabling maximum adaptation to physical loads. The aim of this study was to determine the habits of highly trained endurance athletes depending on sports type, sex and age in order to improve the planning and management of the training of athletes using targeted measures.
Materials and methods: In 2009–2012, the dietary habits of 146 endurance athletes were analyzed. The actual diet of Lithuania endurance athletes was investigated using a 24-h dietary survey method. Data on the athletes' actual diet were collected for the previous day.
Results: It was found that 80.8% of endurance athletes used lower-than-recommended amounts of carbohydrates in their diet, and more than 70% of athletes used higher-than- recommended levels of fat, saturated fatty acids, and cholesterol. The diet of female athletes was low in carbohydrates, dietary fiber, protein, omega-3 fatty acids, B vitamins, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, iron, manganese, and zinc. Athletes aged 14–18 years tended to consume quantities of protein that were either lower than recommended or excessive.
Conclusions: The diet of highly trained endurance athletes does not fully meet their requirements and in this situation cannot ensure maximum adaptation to very intense and/or long-duration physical loads. The diet of highly trained endurance athletes must be optimized, adjusted and individualized. Particular attention should be focused on female athletes.
Keywords: Nutritional habits; High-performance; Endurance athletes Nutritional habits; High-performance; Endurance athletes
MDPI and ACS Style

Baranauskas, M.; Stukas, R.; Tubelis, L.; Žagminas, K.; Šurkienė, G.; Švedas, E.; Giedraitis, V.R.; Dobrovolskij, V.; Abaravičius, J.A. Nutritional habits among high-performance endurance athletes. Medicina 2015, 51, 351-362.

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