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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

Oral bony outgrowths: Prevalence and genetic factor influence. Study of twins

1
Department of Dental and Oral Diseases, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania
2
Department of Restorative Dentistry, Periodontology and Endodontology, Center of Oral Health, University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
3
Oral and Dental Care Department, Kauno Kolegija/University of Applied Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania
4
Department of Orthodontics, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania
5
Institute of Biology Systems and Genetics, Veterinary Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2015, 51(4), 228-232; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medici.2015.07.001
Received: 24 March 2015 / Revised: 22 May 2015 / Accepted: 14 July 2015 / Published: 29 July 2015
Objective: The aim of the study was to verify the influence of a genetic factor on the etiology of oral bony outgrowths and to determine the prevalence and type of oral bony outgrowths (tori and exostoses) among a group of Lithuanian twins.
Materials and methods: In total, 162 twins (81 twin pairs) were analyzed for the presence or absence, type, and size of oral bony outgrowths. Statistical analysis was carried out to find the prevalence of bony protuberances and the relationship between zygosity and occurrence of oral bony enlargements. Zygosity of twins was confirmed by DNA analysis.
Results: 59.9% of the subjects had oral bony outgrowths. Mandibular tori were found in 56.8% and palatal tori in 1.8% of the sample. Palatal exostoses and mandibular exostoses were present in 1.8% and 3.1% of the sample, respectively, whereas maxillary exostoses were not found. A higher percentage of tori and exostoses were found in the group of older subjects (>18 years old, p = 0.025). No significant difference was found between men and women in the prevalence of bony outgrowths. High κ and r values (0.91 ± 0.062) showed very good concor-dance of oral bony outgrowths between monozygotic and moderate concordance (0.58 ± 0.141) between dizygotic co-twins ( p < 0.001). The calculation of heritability estimate verifies domi-nant influence of genetic factor on the etiology of oral bony outgrowths (h2 = 0.658).
Conclusion: The most common bony outgrowth was torus mandibularis. Our results show that the genetic factor is dominant in the etiology of oral bony outgrowths.
Keywords: Genetic factor; Oral bony outgrowths; Torus mandibularis; Torus palatinus; Twins Genetic factor; Oral bony outgrowths; Torus mandibularis; Torus palatinus; Twins
MDPI and ACS Style

Auškalnis, A.; Bernhardt, O.; Putnienė, E.; Šidlauskas, A.; Andriuškevičiūtė, I.; Basevičienė, N. Oral bony outgrowths: Prevalence and genetic factor influence. Study of twins. Medicina 2015, 51, 228-232.

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