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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

Association of cardio-ankle vascular index with cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular events in metabolic syndrome patients

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Vilnius University Hospital Santariškių Klinikos, Santariškių 2, 08661 Vilnius, Lithuania
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Faculty of Medicine, Vilnius University, M.K. Čiurlionio, 03101 Vilnius, Lithuania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2015, 51(3), 152-158; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medici.2015.05.001
Received: 1 April 2015 / Revised: 14 May 2015 / Accepted: 20 May 2015 / Published: 16 June 2015
Objectives: We aimed to investigate the association between arterial stiffness assessed as cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and CV events in the middle-aged metabolic syndrome (MS) patients.
Materials and methods: A follow-up study was carried out in 2106 middle-aged (53.83 6.17 years old, 62% women) MS subjects without overt atherosclerotic disease. Patients were initially recruited in 2009–2011 as participants of the Lithuanian High Cardiovascular Risk (LitHiR) primary prevention program and followed up for 3.8 ± 1.7 years for CV events. Thorough cardiometabolic risk assessment was carried out at inclusion.
Results: Subjects with higher CAVI had worse lipid and glucose metabolism profile: elevated total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), decreased highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), higher fasting and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) glucose levels (all P < 0.001), and lower fasting insulin (P = 0.021). Greater age (P < 0.001), heart rate (P = 0.016), and mean arterial pressure (P < 0.001) were also associated with higher CAVI. Over the follow-up period, 93 (4.4%) patients developed a cardiovascular event: 55 (2.6%) patients had myocardial infarction and 38 (1.8%) suffered a cerebrovascular event. Fatal CV events comprised 6.5% (n = 6) of all CV events. CAVI was statistically significantly associated with occurrence of myocardial infarction (P = 0.027) and total cardiovascular events (P = 0.045), but not cerebrovascular events (P = 0.65). However, this association was dependent on age and gender.
Conclusions: In the middle-aged MS patients, higher CAVI was associated with altered lipid and glucose metabolism, older age, greater heart rate and mean arterial pressure, and worse cardiovascular outcome.
Keywords: Arterial stiffness; Metabolic syndrome; Cardiovascular risk Arterial stiffness; Metabolic syndrome; Cardiovascular risk
MDPI and ACS Style

Laucevičius, A.; Ryliškytė, L.; Balsytė, J.; Badarienė, J.; Puronaitė, R.; Navickas, R.; Solovjova, S. Association of cardio-ankle vascular index with cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular events in metabolic syndrome patients. Medicina 2015, 51, 152-158.

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