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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

Association of cardio-ankle vascular index with cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular events in metabolic syndrome patients

Vilnius University Hospital Santariškių Klinikos, Santariškių 2, 08661 Vilnius, Lithuania
Faculty of Medicine, Vilnius University, M.K. Čiurlionio, 03101 Vilnius, Lithuania
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2015, 51(3), 152-158;
Received: 1 April 2015 / Revised: 14 May 2015 / Accepted: 20 May 2015 / Published: 16 June 2015
Objectives: We aimed to investigate the association between arterial stiffness assessed as cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and CV events in the middle-aged metabolic syndrome (MS) patients.
Materials and methods: A follow-up study was carried out in 2106 middle-aged (53.83 6.17 years old, 62% women) MS subjects without overt atherosclerotic disease. Patients were initially recruited in 2009–2011 as participants of the Lithuanian High Cardiovascular Risk (LitHiR) primary prevention program and followed up for 3.8 ± 1.7 years for CV events. Thorough cardiometabolic risk assessment was carried out at inclusion.
Results: Subjects with higher CAVI had worse lipid and glucose metabolism profile: elevated total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), decreased highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), higher fasting and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) glucose levels (all P < 0.001), and lower fasting insulin (P = 0.021). Greater age (P < 0.001), heart rate (P = 0.016), and mean arterial pressure (P < 0.001) were also associated with higher CAVI. Over the follow-up period, 93 (4.4%) patients developed a cardiovascular event: 55 (2.6%) patients had myocardial infarction and 38 (1.8%) suffered a cerebrovascular event. Fatal CV events comprised 6.5% (n = 6) of all CV events. CAVI was statistically significantly associated with occurrence of myocardial infarction (P = 0.027) and total cardiovascular events (P = 0.045), but not cerebrovascular events (P = 0.65). However, this association was dependent on age and gender.
Conclusions: In the middle-aged MS patients, higher CAVI was associated with altered lipid and glucose metabolism, older age, greater heart rate and mean arterial pressure, and worse cardiovascular outcome.
Keywords: Arterial stiffness; Metabolic syndrome; Cardiovascular risk Arterial stiffness; Metabolic syndrome; Cardiovascular risk
MDPI and ACS Style

Laucevičius, A.; Ryliškytė, L.; Balsytė, J.; Badarienė, J.; Puronaitė, R.; Navickas, R.; Solovjova, S. Association of cardio-ankle vascular index with cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular events in metabolic syndrome patients. Medicina 2015, 51, 152-158.

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