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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.

Table of Contents

Medicina, Volume 51, Issue 2 (April 2015) – 9 articles , Pages 69-131

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Open AccessArticle
Training strategy of explosive strength in young female volleyball players
Medicina 2015, 51(2), 126-131; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medici.2015.03.004 - 01 Apr 2015
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 781
Abstract
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an 8-week combined jump and ball throwing training program in the performance of upper and lower extremities among young female volleyball players of the high school.
Materials and methods: A total [...] Read more.
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an 8-week combined jump and ball throwing training program in the performance of upper and lower extremities among young female volleyball players of the high school.
Materials and methods: A total of 20 young female volleyball players playing at Scholar Sport in High School at the district level were divided in two groups: the experimental group (n = 10; 14.0 ± 0.0 years; 1.6 ± 0.1 m; 52.0 ± 7.0 kg and 20.7 ± 2.4% body mass) and the control group (n = 10; 13.8 ± 0.4 years, 1.6 ± 0.1 m; 53.5 ± 4.7 kg and 20.3 ± 1.7% body mass). The experimental group received additional plyometric and ball throwing exercises besides their normal volleyball practice. The control group underwent only their regular session of training.
Results: Strength performance in the experimental group significantly improved (medicine ball and volleyball ball throwing: P = 0.00; and counter movement jump: P = 0.05), with the improvement ranging from 5.3% to 20.1%. No significant changes in strength performance were observed in the control group (P > 0.05).
Conclusions: The 8-week combined jump and ball throwing training can significantly improve muscular performance in young female volleyball players. These findings may be useful for all physical education teachers and volleyball coaches. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Nicotinic potentiation of frog retinotectal transmission in tectum layer F by α3β2, α4β2, α2β4, α6β2, or α7 acetylcholine receptor subtypes
Medicina 2015, 51(2), 117-125; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medici.2015.03.002 - 01 Apr 2015
Viewed by 257
Abstract
Objective: The aim of the study was to explore the effect of semi-specific antagonists and agonists of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the paired-pulse facilitation and nicotinic tonic and phasic potentiation of the frog retinotectal synaptic transmission.
Materials and methods: The experiments were [...] Read more.
Objective: The aim of the study was to explore the effect of semi-specific antagonists and agonists of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the paired-pulse facilitation and nicotinic tonic and phasic potentiation of the frog retinotectal synaptic transmission.
Materials and methods: The experiments were performed in vivo on adult frogs, Rana temporaria. An individual retina ganglion cell (or its retinotectal fiber) was stimulated by current pulses delivered through multichannel stimulating electrode positioned on the retina. Responses to a discharge of a single retinal ganglion cell were recorded in the tectum by an extracellular carbon-fiber microelectrode positioned in the terminal arborization of the retinotectal fiber in the tectum layer F. The effect of the antagonists and agonists of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on the tectal responses has been tested.
Results: We found that the antagonists, MLA and DHβE, and agonists, RJR-2403 and choline, of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the α3β2, α4β2, α2β4, α6β2, or α7 subtypes have had no effect on the phasic and tonic potentiation of the retinotectal transmission. The pairedpulse facilitation of the retinotectal transmission was not appreciably affected by the antagonists, but the choline, agonist of the α7 subtype receptor, has significantly decreased the paired-pulse facilitation.
Conclusions: The tonic and phasic potentiation of the retinotectal transmission in the tectum layer F were not mediated by the receptors of α3β2, α4β2, α2β4, α6β2, or α7 subtype. The results suggest that presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the frog optic fibers are different from those of the mammalian optic fibers. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Correlation of magnesium deficiency with C-reactive protein in elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass for ischemic heart disease
Medicina 2015, 51(2), 100-106; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medici.2015.03.003 - 01 Apr 2015
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 310
Abstract
Background and objective: Cardiac surgery is associated with systemic inflammatory response, which is triggered by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and possibly with underlying magnesium deficiency. Animal studies have shown that magnesium deficiency intensifies oxidative stress and inflammatory processes. We aimed to find a link [...] Read more.
Background and objective: Cardiac surgery is associated with systemic inflammatory response, which is triggered by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and possibly with underlying magnesium deficiency. Animal studies have shown that magnesium deficiency intensifies oxidative stress and inflammatory processes. We aimed to find a link between serum, erythrocyte, cardiac tissue magnesium concentration and C-reactive protein (CRP) as an inflammatory marker in patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with CPB.
Materials and methods: The data of 27 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with CPB for ischemic heart disease were analyzed. Measurements were taken at the baseline, i.e., 24 h before surgery (serum magnesium, CRP); time point 1, before CPB (serum, erythrocyte and cardiac tissue magnesium); time point 2, after CPB (serum, erythrocyte and cardiac tissue magnesium), and time point 3, 15–17 h after surgery (serum, erythrocyte magnesium, CRP).
Results: There was a negative correlation between baseline serum magnesium and baseline CRP (P = 0.009; r = 0.492), negative correlation between cardiac tissue magne- sium at the time point 1 and baseline CRP (P = 0.021; r = 0.443), and positive correlation between CRP at time point 3 and erythrocyte magnesium at time point 2 (P < 0.001; r = 0.637).
Conclusions: The data of our study verify that inflammatory marker CRP and magnesium concentration in serum and cardiac tissue before the surgery are inversely related in patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with CPB. Well-planned further studies are needed to evaluate the importance of underlying magnesium deficiency on the severity of systemic inflammatory response and postoperative complications after surgery with CPB. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protection in girls with type 1 diabetes mellitus during reproductive system development
Medicina 2015, 51(2), 107-111; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medici.2015.01.009 - 31 Mar 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 257
Abstract
Background and objective: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is found worldwide and is regarded as one of the main risks to human health. The objective of this study was to determine the state of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant protection in girls with [...] Read more.
Background and objective: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is found worldwide and is regarded as one of the main risks to human health. The objective of this study was to determine the state of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant protection in girls with T1D type considering the stages of reproductive system development.
Materials and methods: This study enrolled 56 young girls with T1D and 60 healthy girls (control) matched by age. The study population was divided into 3 age groups: prepubertal, adolescent, and juvenile. The state of LPO and antioxidant system was assessed using the coefficient of oxidative stress that represented the ratio of LPO products to general antioxidative blood activity. Spectrophotometric and fluorometric methods were applied.
Results: The results of our study showed increased conjugated diene (CD) and thiobarbituric acid reactant (TBAR) concentrations as well as a decreased reduced glutathione level in prepubertal girls with T1D. Adolescent girls with T1D had a significantly greater CD level and juvenile girls with T1D had a significantly greater TBAR level and lower α-tocopherol concentration than girls in the control group. The greatest coefficient of oxidative stress (1.16) was observed in the prepubertal period.
Conclusions: The prepubertal period is characterized by the most severe state of lipid peroxidation process–antioxidant protection. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Osteosynthesis of the clavicle after osteotomy in brachial plexus surgery: A biomechanical cadaver study
Medicina 2015, 51(2), 112-116; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medici.2015.02.004 - 25 Mar 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 266
Abstract
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the biomechanical effects of locking plate superior and anteroinferior positioning on the osteosynthesis of the clavicles osteotomized obliquely.
Materials and methods: Ten matched pairs of fresh cadaveric clavicles osteotomized through the mid-shaft [...] Read more.
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the biomechanical effects of locking plate superior and anteroinferior positioning on the osteosynthesis of the clavicles osteotomized obliquely.
Materials and methods: Ten matched pairs of fresh cadaveric clavicles osteotomized through the mid-shaft obliquely were repaired with a titanium 7-hole 3.5-mm reconstruction locking plate in the superior or the anteroinferior position. The maximal failure loads and the displacement of the specimens at 166 N, 183 N, 203 N loads were recorded by the machine in 3-point cantilever bending. Bending failure stiffness was calculated between 10–150 N and 151 N to maximal bending failure loads.
Results: The mean maximal failure load was 396.2 N (SD, 117.3) for superior constructs and 220.1 N (SD, 51.1) for anteroinferior one (P < 0.05). There was significant difference in displacement between superior and anteroinferior plated specimens at 183 N (6.3 [SD, 2] vs. 9.9 [SD, 3.6]) and 203 N (6.4 [SD, 0.6] vs. 11.7 [SD, 6.6]) loads; P < 0.05). Mean bending failure stiffness between 151 N and maximal loads was 22.6 N/mm (SD, 13.2) for superior plates and 11 N/mm (SD, 9) for anteroinferior plated clavicles (P < 0.05).
Conclusions: The superior plating of obliquely osteotomized clavicles with the titanium 7-hole 3.5-mm locking reconstruction plate had a significantly greater biomechanical stability at fixed loads of 183 N and 203 N than the anteroinferior plating in the inferior directed cantilever bending. The superior plating osteosynthesis exhibited a significantly greater stiffness from 151 N to maximal bending failure loads as well. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Functional (ischemic) mitral regurgitation in acute phase of myocardial infarction: Associated clinical factors and in-hospital outcomes
Medicina 2015, 51(2), 92-99; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medici.2015.02.003 - 25 Mar 2015
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 277
Abstract
Background and objective: Mitral regurgitation (MR) after myocardial infarction (MI) carries adverse prognosis. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of functional MR on adverse in-hospital outcomes in acute MI.
Materials and methods: A total of 569 patients with first [...] Read more.
Background and objective: Mitral regurgitation (MR) after myocardial infarction (MI) carries adverse prognosis. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of functional MR on adverse in-hospital outcomes in acute MI.
Materials and methods: A total of 569 patients with first ever acute MI were divided into three groups: no MR, mild MR (regurgitant orifice area <0.2 cm2) and moderate-severe MR group (regurgitant orifice area more or equal >0.2 cm2). Clinical profile and in-hospital outcomes were compared among the groups.
Results: Patients with increasing grade of MR were elder (P < 0.001), more likely to be female (P = 0.003), have atrial fibrillation (P < 0.001), higher peak C-reactive protein values (P = 0.001), multivessel coronary artery disease (P < 0.001), and less likely to have dyslipidemia (P = 0.029). Ejection fraction, age, atrial fibrillation and left ventricular end diastolic diameter index were independent predictors of moderate and severe MR (P < 0.001). In hospital cardiac death and decompensated heart failure was more prevalent in moderate-severe MR group.
Conclusions: Moderate and severe MR in acute MI is related to age, atrial fibrillation, increased left ventricular diastolic dimensions and decreased ejection fraction. Moderate and severe, but not mild MR is an important clinical contributor to in-hospital cardiac death. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Labor epidural analgesia and the incidence of instrumental assisted delivery
Medicina 2015, 51(2), 76-80; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medici.2015.02.002 - 25 Mar 2015
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 325
Abstract
Objective: To assess the influence of labor epidural analgesia on the course of labor and to determine its association with instrumental assisted delivery rate.
Materials and methods: A retrospective case–control study was performed during 2007–2011 aiming to identify the relation between epidural analgesia [...] Read more.
Objective: To assess the influence of labor epidural analgesia on the course of labor and to determine its association with instrumental assisted delivery rate.
Materials and methods: A retrospective case–control study was performed during 2007–2011 aiming to identify the relation between epidural analgesia (EA) and instrumental assisted delivery (IAD) rate. All patients in whom instrumental assistance for delivery was applied were allocated into either case (parturients who received EA and had IAD) or control (parturients who did not receive EA but had IAD) groups. Maternal demographic data, pregnancy and delivery characteristics as well as neonatal short-term outcome were studied.
Results: A total of 7675 vaginal deliveries occurred during the study period and 187 (2.43%) patients had IAD. Vacuum extraction was applied to 67 (2.16%) parturients who received EA, and to 120 (2.61%) who did not. The median duration of the first stage of labor was 510 min in the EA group as compared to 390 min in the control group (P = 0.001). The median duration of the second stage of labor among cases and controls was 60 and 40 min, respectively (P < 0.0005). Cases more often had their labor induced by oxytocin 80.3% as compared to 58.3% among controls (P = 0.003). There was no significant association between the use of EA and increased IAD rate (OR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.60–1.09).
Conclusions: Labor EA did not increase the incidence of IAD and the risk of adverse neonatal outcomes, but was associated with prolonged first and second stages of labor. Full article
Open AccessReview
Symbiotic and antibiotic interactions between gut commensal microbiota and host immune system
Medicina 2015, 51(2), 69-75; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medici.2015.03.001 - 24 Mar 2015
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 312
Abstract
The human gut commensal microbiota forms a complex population of microorganisms that survive by maintaining a symbiotic relationship with the host. Amongst the metabolic benefits it brings, formation of adaptive immune system and maintenance of its homeo- stasis are functions that play an [...] Read more.
The human gut commensal microbiota forms a complex population of microorganisms that survive by maintaining a symbiotic relationship with the host. Amongst the metabolic benefits it brings, formation of adaptive immune system and maintenance of its homeo- stasis are functions that play an important role. This review discusses the integral elements of commensal microbiota that stimulate responses of different parts of the immune system and lead to health or disease. It aims to establish conditions and factors that contribute to gut commensal microbiota's transformation from symbiotic to antibiotic relationship with human. We suggest that the host-microbiota relationship has been evolved to benefit both parties and any changes that may lead to disease, are not due to unfriendly properties of the gut microbiota but due to host genetics or environmental changes such as diet or infection. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A mini volume loading test for indication of preoperative dehydration in surgical patients
Medicina 2015, 51(2), 81-91; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medici.2015.02.001 - 18 Mar 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 293
Abstract
Background and objective: Previously, a mini volume loading test (mVLT) detected signs of dehydration in healthy volunteers after an overnight fast. Our objective was to investigate whether mVLT could indicate preoperative dehydration in patients after an overnight fast.
Materials and methods: The mVLT [...] Read more.
Background and objective: Previously, a mini volume loading test (mVLT) detected signs of dehydration in healthy volunteers after an overnight fast. Our objective was to investigate whether mVLT could indicate preoperative dehydration in patients after an overnight fast.
Materials and methods: The mVLT was performed in 36 elective primary total knee arthroplasty patients. Each subject received three fluid challenges before anesthesia induction. These consisted of 5 mL/kg boluses of Ringer's acetate infused over 3–5 min and followed by a 5-min period without fluids. Invasive (arterial, venous) and noninvasive (capillary) measurements of hemoglobin concentration were performed before and after each fluid challenge, as well as after a 20-min period without fluids which followed the last bolus. Arterial, venous and capillary plasma dilutions were calculated in every data point. Dilution values were used to calculate the plasma dilution efficacy of each fluid challenge.
Results: Venous dilution was higher than capillary after the first fluid challenge (P = 0.030), but lower than capillary after 20 min period following the last bolus (P = 0.009). Arterial dilution was lower than capillary (P = 0.005) after 20 min following the last bolus. Venocapillary and arterio-capillary plasma dilution efficacy differences decreased (P = 0.004 and P = 0.033, respectively) from positive to negative during mVLT. These are signs of re-hydration from pre-existing dehydration according to a transcapillary reflux model.
Conclusions: Signs of dehydration were observed during mVLT in patients after pre-operative overnight fast. A revised transcapillary reflux model was proposed to explain the results. Full article
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