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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

Antimicrobial usage among hospitalized children in Latvia: A neonatal and pediatric antimicrobial point prevalence survey

1
University Children's Hospital, Riga, Latvia
2
Faculty of Pharmacy, Riga Stradins University, Riga, Latvia
3
Public Health and Epidemiology Department, Riga Stradins University, Riga, Latvia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2014, 50(3), 175-181; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medici.2014.08.005
Received: 14 June 2013 / Revised: 3 July 2014 / Published: 13 August 2014
Background and objective: The point prevalence survey was conducted as part of the Antibiotic Resistance and Prescribing in European Children (ARPEC) Project. The study aimed at analyzing pediatric and neonatal antimicrobial prescribing patterns in Latvian hospitals, to identify targets for quality improvement.
Materials and methods: A one day cross-sectional point prevalence survey on antibiotic use in hospitalized children was conducted in November 2012 in 10 Latvian hospitals, using a previously validated and standardized method. The survey included all inpatient pediatric and neonatal beds and identified all children receiving an antimicrobial treatment on the day of survey.
Results: Overall 549 patients were included in the study; 167 (39%) patients admitted to pediatric wards and 25 (21%) patients admitted to neonatal wards received at least one antimicrobial. Pediatric top three antibiotic groups were third-generation cephalosporins (55 prescriptions, 28%), extended spectrum penicillins (n = 32, 16%) and first-generation cephalosporins (n = 26, 13%). Eleven pediatric patients (85%) received surgical prophylaxis more than 1 day; 143 pediatric patients (86%) received antibiotics intravenously. Lower respiratory tract infections were the most common indications for antibiotic use both in pediatric (n = 60, 35.9%) and neonatal patients (n = 9, 36%). The most used antibiotics for neonatal patients were benzylpenicillin (n = 12, 32%), and gentamicin (n = 9, 24%).
Conclusions: We identified a few problematic areas, which need improvement: the high use of third-generation cephalosporins for pediatric patients, prolonged surgical prophylaxis, predominant use of parenteral antibiotics and an urgent need for local antibiotic guidelines.
Keywords: Hospitalized children; Point prevalence survey; Third-generation cephalosporins; Parenteral antibiotics Hospitalized children; Point prevalence survey; Third-generation cephalosporins; Parenteral antibiotics
MDPI and ACS Style

Sviestina, I.; Mozgis, D. Antimicrobial usage among hospitalized children in Latvia: A neonatal and pediatric antimicrobial point prevalence survey. Medicina 2014, 50, 175-181.

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