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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

Concise review of current concepts on nomenclature and pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy

Centre of Hepatology, Gastroenterology and Dietetics, Clinic of Gastroenterology, Nephrourology and Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania
Department of Biomechanics, Faculty of Mechanics, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Vilnius, Lithuania
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2014, 50(2), 75-81;
Received: 12 December 2013 / Accepted: 24 April 2014 / Published: 27 June 2014
Hepatic encephalopathy is a neuropsychiatric complication of liver cirrhosis the symptoms of which may vary from imperceptible to severe, invaliding, and even lethal. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy is also important because of its tendency to impair patients' cognitive functions and quality of life.
The polyetiological pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy is intensively studied. A general consensus exists that not only excess of ammonia but also inflammatory, oxidative, and other processes are significant in the development of hepatic encephalopathy.
Keywords: Encephalopathy; Cirrhosis; Pathogenesis Encephalopathy; Cirrhosis; Pathogenesis
MDPI and ACS Style

Savlan, I.; Liakina, V.; Valantinas, J. Concise review of current concepts on nomenclature and pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy. Medicina 2014, 50, 75-81.

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