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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

Prevalence of dyslipidemia in statin-treated patients in the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania): Results of the Dyslipidemia International Study (DYSIS)

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North Estonia Medical Centre, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia
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Latvian Center of Cardiology, Pauls Stradins Clinical University Hospital, Riga, Latvia
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East Tallinn Central Hospital, Tallinn, Estonia
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Vilnius University Hospital Santariškių Klinikos, Vilnius, Lithuania
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Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania
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fMSD UAB, Vilnius, Lithuania
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Institut für Pharmakologie und Präventive Medizin, Mahlow, Germany
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Merck & Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2014, 50(1), 44-53; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medici.2014.05.003
Published: 10 June 2014
Background and objective: The Baltic nations (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) are profoundly affected by cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies have indicated that patients may experience persistent dyslipidemia despite chronic statin treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the risk factors for dyslipidemia despite statin-treatment in a large dataset from the Baltic nations.
Material and methods: Patients in primary care centers across the Baltic nations were enrolled into the cross-sectional, observational Dyslipidemia International Study (DYSIS). Patients were ≥45 years old and had been treated with statins for at least three months. Patient characteristics and lipid measurements were used to determine variables contributing to dyslipidemia (abnormal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], high-density lipopro- tein cholesterol [HDL-C], or total triglyceride [TG] values).
Results: We enrolled 1797 patients with a mean age of 66.1 years and 59.1% being female. Overall 63.4% had cardiovascular disease, 30.1% were diabetic and 77.8% at high risk for cardiovascular complications. LDL-C was not at target level for 80.7%; low HDL-C levels were observed for 26.0%, and elevated TG levels were found in 35.0% of all patients. Multivariate analyses indicated that a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.45–3.08) and hypertension (OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.1 6–5.10) were strongly associated with dyslipidemia (involving all three lipids) during statin therapy while age ≥70 years (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.42–0.94) and female gender (OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.33–0.68) conferred reduced risk.
Conclusions: Our findings indicate many statin-treated patients in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania did not meet target lipid levels and had a very high risk of CVD. Combating other well-known CVD risk factors such as obesity and hypertension is vital to reduce the exceptionally high riskfor CVD mortality seen in the Baltic nations.
Keywords: Cardiovascular disease; Dyslipidemia; Statins; Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; High-density lipoprotein cholesterol; Triglycerides Cardiovascular disease; Dyslipidemia; Statins; Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; High-density lipoprotein cholesterol; Triglycerides
MDPI and ACS Style

Viigimaa, M.; Erglis, A.; Latkovskis, G.; Mäeots, E.; Petrulionienė, Ž.; Šlapikas, R.; Gocentiene, A.; Bramlage, P.; Brudi, P. Prevalence of dyslipidemia in statin-treated patients in the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania): Results of the Dyslipidemia International Study (DYSIS). Medicina 2014, 50, 44-53.

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