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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

Associations Between Air Temperature and Daily Suicide Counts in Astana, Kazakhstan

1
Department of International Public Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Norway
2
International School of Public Health, Northern State Medical University, Russia
3
Medical University of Astana, Kazakhstan
4
WHO Office in Kazakhstan, Kazakhstan
5
WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Bonn Office, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2013, 49(8), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina49080059
Received: 2 June 2013 / Accepted: 30 August 2013 / Published: 4 September 2013
Background and Objective. Seasonal variations in suicide mortality and its association with ambient air temperature have been observed in many countries. However, the evidence from Central Asia is scarce. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between 4 indicators of air temperature and daily suicide counts in Astana, Kazakhstan.
Material and Methods. The daily counts of suicides (ICD-10 codes, X60–X84) for the population of Astana in 2005–2010 were collected using death certificates and medical records at the Municipal Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Associations between the number of cases and mean, maximum, mean apparent, and maximum apparent temperatures were studied using negative binomial regression models controlling for the effects of month, year, weekends, holidays, wind velocity, barometric pressure, and relative humidity.
Results
. Altogether, there were 685 suicides in Astana in 2005–2010. A clear seasonal pattern with the peak in summer was observed. In crude analyses, significant associations between suicide counts and all 4 temperatures were found. After adjustment for other variables, only apparent temperatures remained significantly associated with the outcome. An increase in the mean apparent temperature by 1°C was associated with an increase in suicide counts by 2.1% (95% CI, 0.4–3.8). Similar results were obtained for the maximum apparent temperature (1.2%, 95% CI, 0.1–2.3).
Conclusions
. The results suggest a linear relationship between apparent temperatures and daily suicide counts across the whole spectrum of temperatures. Factors behind this association need further research with a further going aim to develop mitigation strategies in the period of climate change.
Keywords: suicides; temperature; apparent temperature; Central Asia; Kazakhstan suicides; temperature; apparent temperature; Central Asia; Kazakhstan
MDPI and ACS Style

Grjibovski, A.M.; Kozhakhmetova, G.; Kosbayeva, A.; Menne, B. Associations Between Air Temperature and Daily Suicide Counts in Astana, Kazakhstan. Medicina 2013, 49, 59.

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