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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

Treatment of Tuberculosis in South Kazakhstan: Clinical and Economical Aspects

Kazakhstan School of Public Health, Kazakhstan
Kazakh National Medical University named after S. D. Asfendiyarov, Kazakhstan
Department of Health Psychology, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Lithuania
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2013, 49(7), 52;
Received: 23 May 2013 / Accepted: 30 July 2013 / Published: 4 August 2013
Background and Objective. Since 1990, the tuberculosis incidence rate in Eastern Europe and post-Soviet republics has been increasing in many countries including Kazakhstan. This problem is particularly important in Kazakhstan regions with limited financial resources, among them – in South Kazakhstan province. The aim of this study was to investigate the main clinical and antibiotic-related economic aspects of tuberculosis treatment in South Kazakhstan province.
Material and Methods
. In total, 502 patients participated in the study. They were hospitalized to the tuberculosis dispensary of Sayram district (South Kazakhstan province) in 2007–2013. Statistical analysis included logistic regression for better treatment outcomes and analysis of antibiotic treatment costs.
. Two-thirds of patients had infiltrative tuberculosis (67%). Positive treatment outcomes were determined in 85% of cases. The patients were mostly treated with cycloserine, protionamide, capreomycin, and ofloxacin. The majority of antibiotic costs were related to the treatment with capreomycin. In case of the positive results of the test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, antibiotic expenses were almost 3 times greater than in case of negative test results (P<0.001).
Conclusions. The majority of patients had extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. The negative results of the test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis at discharge were not related to pretreatment factors. Antibiotic-related costs were significantly higher in case of the positive results of the test of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but were not associated with gender, residence place, hospitalization recurrence, or main blood test results before treatment.
Keywords: tuberculosis; antibiotics; treatment costs; Kazakhstan tuberculosis; antibiotics; treatment costs; Kazakhstan
MDPI and ACS Style

Maimakov, T.; Sadykova, L.; Kalmataeva, Z.; Kurakpaev, K.; Šmigelskas, K. Treatment of Tuberculosis in South Kazakhstan: Clinical and Economical Aspects. Medicina 2013, 49, 52.

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