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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

Heredity of Cognitive Functions and Personality in Twins

Institute of Biological Systems and Genetics, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences
Department of Theoretical Psychology, Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2013, 49(7), 50;
Received: 6 July 2013 / Accepted: 30 July 2013 / Published: 4 August 2013
Background and Objective. The inheritance of cognitive functions and personality is still a problem under investigation. A classical method, investigation of twins, is often used to find relative contributions from genetics and the environment to quantitative traits. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible influence of heredity on cognitive functions (by applying the Raven test) and personality traits (according to the Eysenck’s theory) in twins.
Material and Methods
. In total, 139 pairs of same-sex twins were investigated. The zygosity of the twin pairs was confirmed through genotyping with 15 molecular DNA markers. Constructive thinking was assessed using the Raven test. Personality assessment was conducted using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) in Lithuanian.
. The difference in the total number of incorrect solutions between monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs younger than 15 years was not significant; however, in the group older than 15 years, this difference was found to be significant. Based on the total number of incorrect solutions, the concordance in the MZ twins was greater than in the DZ twins. The same tendency was found with cumulative EPQ scores on the extraversion scale.
. The results imply that the quality of cognitive functions and personality traits (extraversion) can be influenced by heredity. This confirms previous findings on the heritability of cognitive factors and personality traits.
Keywords: cognitive function; personality; twins; zygosity cognitive function; personality; twins; zygosity
MDPI and ACS Style

Kalasūnienė, L.; Goštautas, A.; Sinkus, A. Heredity of Cognitive Functions and Personality in Twins. Medicina 2013, 49, 50.

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