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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessReview

Mildronate and its Neuroregulatory Mechanisms: Targeting the Mitochondria, Neuroinflammation, and Protein Expression

1
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Latvia
2
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Latvia
3
Latvian Institute of Organic Synthesis, Latvia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2013, 49(7), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina49070047
Received: 5 February 2013 / Accepted: 30 July 2013 / Published: 4 August 2013
This review for the first time summarizes the data obtained in the neuropharmacological studies of mildronate, a drug previously known as a cardioprotective agent. In different animal models of neurotoxicity and neurodegenerative diseases, we demonstrated its neuroprotecting activity. By the use of immunohistochemical methods and Western blot analysis, as well as some selected behavioral tests, the new mechanisms of mildronate have been demonstrated: a regulatory effect on mitochondrial processes and on the expression of nerve cell proteins, which are involved in cell survival, functioning, and inflammation processes. Particular attention is paid to the capability of mildronate to stimulate learning and memory and to the expression of neuronal proteins involved in synaptic plasticity and adult neurogenesis. These properties can be useful in neurological practice to protect and treat neurological disorders, particularly those associated with neurodegeneration and a decline in cognitive functions.
Keywords: mildronate; neuroprotection; memory; mitochondria; neuroinflammation; protein expression mildronate; neuroprotection; memory; mitochondria; neuroinflammation; protein expression
MDPI and ACS Style

Klusa, V.; Beitnere, U.; Pupure, J.; Isajevs, S.; Rumaks, J.; Svirskis, S.; Dzirkale, Z.; Kalvinsh, I. Mildronate and its Neuroregulatory Mechanisms: Targeting the Mitochondria, Neuroinflammation, and Protein Expression. Medicina 2013, 49, 47.

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