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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

The Frequency of CYP2C9, VKORC1, and CYP4F2 Polymorphisms in Russian Patients With High Thrombotic Risk

Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University
Russian Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, 3SM-Clinic, Russia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2013, 49(12), 81;
Received: 12 February 2013 / Accepted: 27 September 2013 / Published: 2 October 2013
Background and Objective. VKORC1, CYP2C9, and CYP4F2 are known to be responsible for the metabolism of warfarin. The aim was to explore the frequencies of these genotypes in the Russian population and compare the results with those for other populations.
Material and Methods
. In total, 91 Caucasian subjects with a mean age of 66.17 years (SD, 10.9) were recruited into the study. Of them, 40 patients (48.2%) were men. In order to obtain necessary clinical data, the medical records of the patients were reviewed. Blood (5 mL) was taken from each subject, and DNA was isolated and used for identification of the CYP2C9 allele *1, *2, *3, –1639G/A VKORC1, and CYP4F2 V433M rs2108622 C>T, using the real-time polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay.
. The CYP2C9*1/*1 genotype was detected in 67.0%, CYP2C9*1/*2 in 9.9%, CYP2C9* 1/*3 in 11.0%, CYP2C9*2/*2 in 2.2%, CYP2C9*2/*3 in 8.8%, and CYP2C9*3/*3 in 1.1% of the patients. The results for VKORC1 were as follows: 49.5% (GG), 28.6% (GA), and 22.0% (AA); meanwhile, those for the genotype CYP4F2 were 57.1% (CC), 34.1% (CT), and 7.7% (TT). No significant deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed. The frequency of the polymorphisms in the Russian population was found to differ from Asian and close to Caucasian. There were no significant interethnic variations in the frequency of CYP4F2 among Russian, Asian, and Caucasian populations.
. The frequency of CYP2C9, CYP4F2, and VKORC1 polymorphisms in Russian patients is comparable with other European ethnic groups.
Keywords: CYP2C9; VKORC1; CYP4F2; pharmacogenomics; warfarin CYP2C9; VKORC1; CYP4F2; pharmacogenomics; warfarin
MDPI and ACS Style

Ivashchenko, D.; Rusin, I.; Sychev, D.; Grachev, A. The Frequency of CYP2C9, VKORC1, and CYP4F2 Polymorphisms in Russian Patients With High Thrombotic Risk. Medicina 2013, 49, 81.

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