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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

Longitudinal Predictors of Aerobic Performance in Adolescent Soccer Players

Faculty of Sport Sciences and Physical Education, University of Coimbra, Portugal
Department of Physical Education, Center of Health Sciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil
School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, United Kingdom
Center for Human Movement Sciences, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, the Netherlands
Institute for Studies in Sports and Exercise, HAN University of Applied Sciences, Nijmegen, the Netherlands
Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, University of Texas, Austin, United States
Department of Health and Physical Education, Tarleton State University, Stephenville, United States
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2012, 48(8), 61;
Received: 11 April 2012 / Accepted: 30 August 2012 / Published: 4 September 2012
Background. The importance of aerobic performance in youth soccer is well established. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contributions of chronological age (CA), skeletal age (SA), body size, and training to the longitudinal development of aerobic performance in youth male soccer players aged 10 to 18 years.
Material and Methods
. Players (n=83) were annually followed up during 5 years, resulting in an average of 4.4 observations per player. Decimal CA was calculated, and SA, stature, body weight, and aerobic performance were measured once per year. Fat-free mass (FFM) was estimated from age- and gender-specific anthropometric formulas, and annual volume training was recorded. After testing for multicollinearity, multilevel regression modeling was used to analyze the longitudinal data aligned by CA and SA (Model 1 and 2, respectively) and to develop aerobic performance scores.
. The following equations provide estimations of the aerobic performance for young soccer players: ŷ(Model 1 [deviance from the null model =388.50; P<0.01]) =57.75+9.06×centered CA– 0.57×centered CA2+0.03×annual volume training and ŷ(Model 2 [deviance from the null model= 327.98; P<0.01])=13.03+4.04×centered SA–0.12×centered SA2+0.99×FFM+0.03×annual volume training.
. The development of aerobic performance in young soccer players was found to be significantly related to CA, biological development, and volume of training.
Keywords: youth soccer; growth; biological age; longitudinal analysis; field testing youth soccer; growth; biological age; longitudinal analysis; field testing
MDPI and ACS Style

Valente-dos-Santos, J.; Coelho-e-Silva, M.J.; Duarte, J.; Figueiredo, A.J.; Liparotti, J.R.; Sherar, L.B.; Elferink-Gemser, M.T.; Malina, R.M. Longitudinal Predictors of Aerobic Performance in Adolescent Soccer Players. Medicina 2012, 48, 61.

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