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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.

Table of Contents

Medicina, Volume 48, Issue 5 (May 2012) – 8 articles

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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Nanoparticles in Rats During Critical Periods of Pregnancy
Medicina 2012, 48(5), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina48050037 - 11 Jun 2012
Viewed by 262
Abstract
Background and Objective. Nanotechnology works with substances at a nanometer scale, and it offers many solutions for biomedicine. Nanoparticles (NPs) have been shown as effective agents for imaging, drug delivery, pathogen detection, etc. However, to date, NP toxicity is poorly known. The [...] Read more.
Background and Objective. Nanotechnology works with substances at a nanometer scale, and it offers many solutions for biomedicine. Nanoparticles (NPs) have been shown as effective agents for imaging, drug delivery, pathogen detection, etc. However, to date, NP toxicity is poorly known. The aim of our study was to investigate the embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of quantum dots (QDs) at the different stages of rat embryogenesis.
Materials and Methods. Wistar rats were injected with CdSe/ZnS or CdTe QDs on the 6th, 13th, and 18th days of embryogenesis. Cyclophosphamide was chosen as a positive control of embryotoxicity. On the 21st day, the number of resorptions, weight, length, and external malformations of the embryos were estimated. Fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy analysis were used to determine the accumulation of QDs in the tissues.
Results
. Exposure to cyclophosphamide during the pregnancy decreased the embryonic weight and length when compared with the control group and produced numerous malformations. The effects depended on the stage of embryogenesis. Meanwhile, QDs did not cause any embryotoxic or teratogenic effects. However, CdTe QDs induced necrosis in the tissues of the peritoneal cavity. The necrotic tissues contained QDs with altered spectroscopic properties. Spectroscopic and microscopic tissue examination revealed that QDs accumulated in the placenta, but no penetration to the embryonic tissues was observed.
Conclusions
. QDs did not cause any direct embryotoxic or teratogenic effects, but they had adverse effects on the maternal organism. The observed QD effects and the long-term accumulation of QDs in the maternal organism may increase the risk of adverse effects on embryo development. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Mitochondrial Membrane Barrier Function as a Target of Hyperthermia
Medicina 2012, 48(5), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina48050036 - 05 Jun 2012
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 216
Abstract
Background and Objective. Hyperthermia is a promising modality for cancer treatment that urgently requires detailed knowledge on molecular and cellular processes for the rational development of treatment protocols. The thorough study of the response of the inner membrane of heart and liver [...] Read more.
Background and Objective. Hyperthermia is a promising modality for cancer treatment that urgently requires detailed knowledge on molecular and cellular processes for the rational development of treatment protocols. The thorough study of the response of the inner membrane of heart and liver mitochondria to hyperthermia was performed in order to establish the pattern of the hyperthermia-induced changes in the membrane barrier function.
Material and Methods
. The isolated mitochondria from rat heart and liver (of both genders) were used for experiments, as well as mitochondria isolated from the perfused male rat liver. Changes in the membrane permeability were evaluated by mitochondrial respiration in state 2 or by estimation of the modular kinetics of the membrane leak.
Results
. The inner membrane of isolated mitochondria from healthy tissues was found to be an extremely sensitive target of hyperthermia that exerted the response even in the febrile range. More severe hyperthermia compromised the inner mitochondrial membrane function; however, this response was tissue-specific and, to some extent, gender-dependent (for liver mitochondria). The data obtained by direct heating of isolated mitochondria were validated by experiments on the perfused liver.
Conclusions.
The obtained results imply a crucial importance of the evaluation of the tissue- and gender-specific differences while developing or improving the protocols for hyperthermic treatment or combinatory therapy. Full article
Open AccessArticle
EuroPrevall Survey on Prevalence and Pattern of Self-Reported Adverse Reactions to Food and Food Allergies Among Primary Schoolchildren in Vilnius, Lithuania
Medicina 2012, 48(5), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina48050038 - 04 Jun 2012
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 273
Abstract
The aim of the research was to assess the prevalence and pattern of self-reported adverse reactions to food and food allergies among primary schoolchildren in Vilnius.
Material and Methods. Vilnius University was a partner in the EuroPrevall project. A total of 4333 [...] Read more.
The aim of the research was to assess the prevalence and pattern of self-reported adverse reactions to food and food allergies among primary schoolchildren in Vilnius.
Material and Methods. Vilnius University was a partner in the EuroPrevall project. A total of 4333 schoolchildren from 13 primary schools participated in the study. Of all 4333 questionnaires distributed, 3084 were returned (response rate, 71.2%). This screening phase was followed by the second (clinical) part with an objective confirmative laboratory analysis of blood samples for the diagnosis of food allergy. For the research purposes, 186 blood samples for IgE were analyzed.
Results.
Almost half of the children had an illness or a disorder caused by eating food. The prevalence of adverse reactions to food was found to be increasing with age from 6 to 10 years. Food allergy was diagnosed in 16.4% of children. Boys had food allergy more frequently than girls. Diarrhea or vomiting and a rash, urticarial rash, or itchy skin were the most commonly mentioned symptoms. Fruits, berries, and milk and dairy were found to be the most common foods to cause adverse reactions. The most relevant foods for children with IgE-mediated food allergy were cow’s milk and hazelnuts.
Conclusions
. The prevalence of self-reported food hypersensitivity among primary schoolchildren was observed in almost half of the studied population. Fruits, berries, and milk and dairy were the most common foods to cause adverse reactions among primary schoolchildren in Lithuania. The determined differences in the prevalence of food hypersensitivity and IgE-mediated food allergy and associations with gender and age need further scientific analysis for the development of prognostic and diagnostic tools. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Concentrations of Thyroid Axis Hormones in Psychotic Patients on Hospital Admission: the Effects of Prior Drug Use
Medicina 2012, 48(5), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina48050033 - 04 Jun 2012
Viewed by 247
Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of thyroid axis hormones in psychotic patients on hospital admission and to search for the associations between the concentrations of these hormones and prior drug use as well as mental symptoms.
Material and
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of thyroid axis hormones in psychotic patients on hospital admission and to search for the associations between the concentrations of these hormones and prior drug use as well as mental symptoms.
Material and Methods
. Psychiatric diagnoses, psychotropic drug use, and the severity of psychoses were evaluated using the standard methods on admission. Venous blood from patients and healthy controls was drawn for the analysis of free thyroxin (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations.
Results
. Eighty-one psychotic patients, free of a thyroid disorder, were enrolled into the study. Compared with the controls, they displayed the higher FT4 concentrations in the general group (P=0.003) and the higher SHBG concentrations only in men (P=0.013). The FT4 concentration was higher in the patients who were not taking an antipsychotic drug on admission (P=0.039). No significant correlation was found between the severity of psychosis and concentrations of thyroid axis hormones. However, the FT3 concentration in the general group and TSH concentration in women correlated with the factor of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale expressing elevated mood.
Conclusions. Our study confirms the higher FT4 concentrations in a significant proportion of acute psychotic patients. The concentrations of thyroid axis hormones were found to be associated with prior antipsychotic treatment on hospital admission. Full article
Open AccessArticle
An Unusual Case of a Sore Throat and Otalgia in a 4-Year-Old Boy
Medicina 2012, 48(5), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina48050040 - 03 Jun 2012
Viewed by 222
Abstract
A sore throat, otalgia, and snoring are the common symptoms seen in children presenting to an otorhinolaryngological clinic. Sometimes, however, these symptoms may be suggestive of an aggressive malignancy. We present a rare case of Burkitt’s lymphoma of the tonsil in a young [...] Read more.
A sore throat, otalgia, and snoring are the common symptoms seen in children presenting to an otorhinolaryngological clinic. Sometimes, however, these symptoms may be suggestive of an aggressive malignancy. We present a rare case of Burkitt’s lymphoma of the tonsil in a young child, which initially manifested as a sore throat and otalgia. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Cognitive Evaluation of Bupropion Sustained Release in Heavy Tobacco Smokers Using Event-Related Potentials
Medicina 2012, 48(5), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina48050034 - 28 May 2012
Viewed by 219
Abstract
Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bupropion sustained release (SR) on cognitive function, evaluated by event-related potentials (ERPs), in heavy tobacco smokers.
Material and Methods. A total of 10 healthy volunteers (6 men and 4 [...] Read more.
Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bupropion sustained release (SR) on cognitive function, evaluated by event-related potentials (ERPs), in heavy tobacco smokers.
Material and Methods. A total of 10 healthy volunteers (6 men and 4 women) were enrolled into the study. P3a and P3b components were evaluated by the novelty P3 paradigm. The ERP recordings were taken after the overnight abstaining and the first dose on the 1st day, on the 7th day, and 45th day of the therapy.
Results
. The analysis of electrophysiological data in response to the standard stimuli in the parietal area after 7-day bupropion SR treatment revealed a significant increase in the P2 latency (P<0.05). With respect to the drug use × topography effect, an increasing trend of borderline significance in the P3b and P2 amplitudes against target events in the parietal area was observed (P=0.08 for both). A significant increase in the P3a amplitude in the parietocentral area was also observed on the seventh day of treatment (P<0.05).
Conclusions
. The reduction of P3a in the frontal area may be due to the decreased distractibility of task-irrelevant novel events, which may mean an augmentation of focused attention to task-relevant target events. The increases in the P3b and P2 amplitudes for target events in the parietal area are very suggestive of this hypothesis, since these components reflect the response to task-relevant target events. Meanwhile, the increased P2 latency for standard events may reflect reduced attention resources for the processing of standard events due to increased attention resources allocated for task-relevant target events. Decreased distractibility and increased attention are believed to be caused by bupropion. Full article
Open AccessCase Report
Clinicopathological Features of Churg-Strauss Syndrome With Severe Nerve Degeneration: A Case Report
Medicina 2012, 48(5), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina48050035 - 25 May 2012
Viewed by 259
Abstract
Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a rare autoimmune vasculitis of unknown etiology that involves small- and medium-sized blood vessels. Its onset is thought to be associated with adult-onset asthma, and vasculitis typically involves vessels in the lungs. However, due to increased blood and tissue [...] Read more.
Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a rare autoimmune vasculitis of unknown etiology that involves small- and medium-sized blood vessels. Its onset is thought to be associated with adult-onset asthma, and vasculitis typically involves vessels in the lungs. However, due to increased blood and tissue eosinophilia, vasculitis may result in the involvement multiple systems of (neurological, skin, etc.). We report a case of CSS with manifestations that included skin purpura and severe peripheral nerve degeneration in a 56-year-old woman with a recent history of asthma. After the treatment with methylprednisolone and standard immunosuppressive therapy, her rashes resolved, there were no acute asthma attacks, and the numbness in her lower limbs improved. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Survival of Women With Breast Cancer in Kaunas Region, Lithuania
Medicina 2012, 48(5), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina48050039 - 12 Feb 2012
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 257
Abstract
Objective. The assessment of breast cancer survival rates and comparison with those of other countries may help to deepen knowledge among decision makers in the health care system and to improve the inequalities in accessibility to early detection and effective treatment. The [...] Read more.
Objective. The assessment of breast cancer survival rates and comparison with those of other countries may help to deepen knowledge among decision makers in the health care system and to improve the inequalities in accessibility to early detection and effective treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate breast cancer survival rates in Kaunas region, Lithuania, and to compare them with those in the selected European countries.
Material and Methods. A retrospective study was carried out using medical records and data gathered from the Lithuanian Cancer Registry. A group of 240 patients with primary breast cancer diagnosed in 2008 in Kaunas region was analyzed. All causes of death were included in the analysis. The closing date of follow-up was September 30, 2010. Survival was determined using the life-table method and the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the effects of prognostic risk factors on survival.
Results. The median age of the patients was 63 years (range, 28–95). The 1-year and 2-year cumulative survival for breast cancer patients in Kaunas region, Lithuania, was 94.2% and 90.1%, respectively. As expected, the survival of patients with diagnosed advanced disease (stage III and IV) was significantly worse than that of patients with stage I (P<0.001) and II (P=0.003) disease. The screening group (aged 50–69 years) showed better survival in comparison with the group older than 69 years. Age, T4 tumor, and distant metastasis were the prognostic factors significantly associated with an increased relative mortality risk of breast cancer.
Conclusions
. Compared to the European survival rates, the 1-year and 2-year survival of patients with breast cancer in Lithuania was found to be similar to most European countries. Full article
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