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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.

Table of Contents

Medicina, Volume 48, Issue 2 (February 2012) – 8 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Parenting Style, Locus of Control, and Oral Hygiene in Adolescents
Medicina 2012, 48(2), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina48020009 - 05 Mar 2012
Viewed by 320
Abstract
Objective. The aim of the study was to test if variations in oral hygiene levels in adolescents were associated with locus of control and parenting styles after controlling for demographic factors. Material and Methods. The study sample comprised 237 adolescents aged 12–13 years. [...] Read more.
Objective. The aim of the study was to test if variations in oral hygiene levels in adolescents were associated with locus of control and parenting styles after controlling for demographic factors. Material and Methods. The study sample comprised 237 adolescents aged 12–13 years. The structured questionnaire included demographic characteristics and items about parenting style and locus of control. The Individual Quantitative Plaque % Index (IQPI) and toothbrushing frequency were used as clinical outcome measures.
Results
. In the bivariate analyses, socioeconomic status (P=0.012), number of children in the family (P=0.003), and frequency of toothbrushing (P=0.001) were related to dental plaque levels. Gender (P<0.001), socioeconomic status (P=0.022), and external locus of control (Spearman rho, –0.144, P=0.027) were statistically significantly associated with toothbrushing frequency. In the multivariate analyses, only socioeconomic status and toothbrushing frequency were statistically significantly related to the IQPI. When toothbrushing frequency as the second outcome variable was used, the IQPI and gender were statistically significant. The association with socioeconomic status did not reach statistical significance (P=0.07).
Conclusions.
Only socioeconomic status and toothbrushing frequency explained variation in dental plaque levels among adolescents. The expected relationship among parenting styles, locus of control, and oral hygiene levels was not confirmed. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Escherichia coli Colonization in Neonates: Prevalence, Perinatal Transmission, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, and Risk Factors
Medicina 2012, 48(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina48020013 - 05 Mar 2012
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 299
Abstract
Escherichia coli is one of the leading causes of early-onset neonatal sepsis in many industrialized countries. However, there is a lack of studies on Escherichia coli colonization in women and neonates. The study aimed at determining the prevalence Escherichia coli among pregnant women [...] Read more.
Escherichia coli is one of the leading causes of early-onset neonatal sepsis in many industrialized countries. However, there is a lack of studies on Escherichia coli colonization in women and neonates. The study aimed at determining the prevalence Escherichia coli among pregnant women and newborns, perinatal transmission, antimicrobial susceptibility, and risk factors for neonatal colonization.
Material and Methods
. In this prospective, cross-sectional study, 827 infants born to 808 mothers were enrolled. The study was carried out from October 1, 2006, to June 30, 2007. Women were screened for E. coli carriage at 35–37 weeks of gestation or on admission for premature rupture of membranes and delivery; neonates, within 15 minutes of their lives. Risk factors for colonization were collected by a questionnaire and were recorded during labor.
Results.
Maternal E. coli colonization rate was 19.9%; neonatal, 14.4%; and transmission rate, 21.4%. Less than one-fourth (22.7%) of neonatal E. coli strains were resistant to ampicillin. Logistic regression analysis revealed that anal sexual intercourse (OR, 3.91; 95% CI, 1.87–8.19), one sexual partner (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.30–3.11), maternal vaginal Escherichia coli colonization (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.12–2.93), maternal body mass index of ≤27 (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.15–2.73), and maternal education lower than university level (OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.06–2.74) were associated with neonatal Escherichia coli colonization.
Conclusions
. The prevalence of maternal Escherichia coli colonization was higher in this study than other studies (19.9%). Neonatal Escherichia coli colonization was 14.4%. The resistance of Escherichia coli isolates to ampicillin was not high (22.7%). Improvement of maternal education and modification of mothers’ sexual habits need to be undertaken to prevent neonatal Escherichia coli colonization. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Gold Nanoparticles in the Treatment of Established Collagen Arthritis in Rats
Medicina 2012, 48(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina48020016 - 04 Mar 2012
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 309
Abstract
Background and objective. The role of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in the treatment of autoimmune diseases remains vague. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of AuNPs in the treatment of rats with established collagen-induced arthritis (CIA).
Material and
[...] Read more.
Background and objective. The role of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in the treatment of autoimmune diseases remains vague. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of AuNPs in the treatment of rats with established collagen-induced arthritis (CIA).
Material and Methods.
A total of 24 Wistar male rats with established CIA were used. AuNPs measuring 13-nm and 50-nm were prepared according to standard procedures, and their size was determined using transmission electron microscopy. These gold particles were injected intra-articularly 5 times a week, 12 injections in total. Body and organ weight, arthritic profiles based on paw swelling, histological changes in the joints and internal organs, blood indices, and serum oxidative products were investigated.
Results. An examination of the course of the experimental disease and a subsequent histological analysis as well as hematological studies revealed a nontoxic effect of AuNPs on the vital organs. The treatment of the rats with established CIA by 13-nm and 50-nm gold nanoparticles decreased joint swelling by 49.7% (P<0.002) and 45.03% (P<0.01), respectively. That corresponded to the decrease in statistically significant histological changes in articular tissues. AuNPs showed their antioxidant effect by increasing the level of antioxidant enzyme catalase.
Conclusions
. The continuous intra-articular administration of AuNPs not only reduced the inflammation, joint swelling, and development of polyarthritis, but also reduced histological changes in articular tissues without toxic effects on the internal organs. The results obtained disclose the role of AuNPs as antioxidant agents. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Biomechanical Aspects of Locking Reconstruction Plate Positioning in Osteosynthesis of Transverse Clavicle Fracture
Medicina 2012, 48(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina48020012 - 04 Mar 2012
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 260
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the biomechanical effects of locking reconstruction plate positioning on the osteosynthesis of clavicle midshaft simulated transverse fractures.
Material and Methods
. Twelve synthetic clavicles with simulated midshaft transverse fractures were repaired with a [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the biomechanical effects of locking reconstruction plate positioning on the osteosynthesis of clavicle midshaft simulated transverse fractures.
Material and Methods
. Twelve synthetic clavicles with simulated midshaft transverse fractures were repaired with a 3.5-mm locking reconstruction plate in the anteroinferior or the superior position. The clavicles were randomly assigned to 2 groups (6 per group). Each repaired clavicle was tested in cantilever bending by using the universal testing machine. The maximal load and the displacement of the specimens at a load of 40 N were recorded for each group.
Results. The anteroinferior plating osteosynthesis with a 3.5-mm locking reconstruction plate could bear an average maximal load of 183.3 N (SD, 11.3); the corresponding load for the superior plating osteosynthesis with the identical implants was 444.8 N (SD, 102.3), and the mean displacement was 1.5 mm (SD, 0.5) and 0.7 mm (SD, 0.2), respectively.
Conclusions
. The superior plating osteosynthesis of simulated midshaft transverse clavicle fractures with the 7-hole 3.5-mm locking reconstruction plate had a significantly higher bending (from top to bottom) load to failure in comparison with the anteroinferior plating osteosynthesis of the clavicle with the identical implants. Clavicles plated with the 7-hole 3.5-mm locking reconstruction plate at the superior aspect exhibited a significantly greater biomechanical stability at a load of 40 N than those plated at the anteroinferior aspect. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Two Dog-Related Infections Leading to Death: Overwhelming Capnocytophaga canimorsus Sepsis in a Patient With Cystic Echinococcosis
Medicina 2012, 48(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina48020011 - 04 Mar 2012
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 265
Abstract
Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a fastidious, capnophilic, fusiform, and filamentous gram-negative rod. It is part of the normal oral flora of dogs and cats and can cause an infection in humans, but is of generally low virulence in healthy individuals. A case of fatal [...] Read more.
Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a fastidious, capnophilic, fusiform, and filamentous gram-negative rod. It is part of the normal oral flora of dogs and cats and can cause an infection in humans, but is of generally low virulence in healthy individuals. A case of fatal sepsis due to Capnocytophaga canimorsus in a 46-year-old woman with clinically silent cystic echinococcosis discovered postmortem is present. She had been bitten by a dog 3 days before the symptoms appeared. The family had owned the dog for 4 years. A preliminary diagnosis of septic shock of unknown etiology with multisystem organ failure was established. Despite all the efforts, the patient died on the seventh day of hospitalization. Laboratory findings received postmortem showed Capnocytophaga canimorsus isolated from the blood culture after 7 incubation days. Autopsy showed a cyst in the liver with a fibrotic wall and necrotic eosinophilic interiors containing fragments of Echinococcus granulosus scolices. In conclusion, an interaction possibly established long ago between the host and Echinococcus granulosus conditioned immunosuppression mechanisms developed by the parasite in this case, which can explain such an aggressive course of the infection with Capnocytophaga. Two dog-related infections were fatal in the middle-aged dog owner considered healthy before this hospitalization. Vigilance concerning recent exposure to dogs or cats and potential immunosuppression risk factors must be maintained in a patient presenting with clinical features of fulminant sepsis. Full article
Open AccessCase Report
Two Cases of Takotsubo Syndrome Related to Tracheal Intubation/Extubation
Medicina 2012, 48(2), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina48020010 - 04 Mar 2012
Viewed by 355
Abstract
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is an acute, reversible left ventricular dysfunction with characteristic contractility disorder and is usually preceded by emotional or physical stress. Two cases of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy related to tracheal manipulation are presented. Both the patients had all the typical symptoms and signs [...] Read more.
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is an acute, reversible left ventricular dysfunction with characteristic contractility disorder and is usually preceded by emotional or physical stress. Two cases of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy related to tracheal manipulation are presented. Both the patients had all the typical symptoms and signs of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, and both of them recovered completely within weeks. Tracheal manipulation is a well-known stress factor during the perioperative period, and experience from these two cases stresses the crucial role of measures aimed to stress reduction. Proper premedication and calm environment are recommended to produce anxiolysis before intubation. The administration of α- and β-blockers is also recommended to inhibit sympathetic stress caused by tracheal manipulation. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Reliability and Validity of DPA-1 Testing After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
Medicina 2012, 48(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina48020014 - 29 Feb 2012
Viewed by 279
Abstract
There is a lack of equipment and methods for the reliable and valid measurements of human neuromuscular control. To overcome this limitation, an analyzer of dynamic parameters (DPA-1) of human hand and leg movements was constructed by Kaunas University of Technology and “Katra” [...] Read more.
There is a lack of equipment and methods for the reliable and valid measurements of human neuromuscular control. To overcome this limitation, an analyzer of dynamic parameters (DPA-1) of human hand and leg movements was constructed by Kaunas University of Technology and “Katra” engineers in collaboration with the Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education. The aim of the study was to determine the reliability and validity of the tests performed on the DPA-1 in healthy and injured subjects after the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery.
Material and Methods. The men who had undergone a unilateral ACL reconstruction (n=17, on the average 3.8 months [SD, 2.1] after the surgery) and healthy untrained men (n=17) performed the research protocol twice within 24 hours in between. Average reaction time, mean and maximal movement speed, time to reach maximal speed, and movement distance of the right and left feet for the patients and of the dominant foot for the healthy subjects using the DPA-1 as well as the scores of isokinetic muscle strength and self-assessment tests were registered.
Results
. There was a significantly reduced concentric peak torque on the injured knee compared with the uninjured knee during knee extension, and the mean score of the Lysholm scale for the injured knee was 69.1 (SD, 13.7) (P<0.05, compared between legs). The test-retest reliability for all the DPA-1 tests varied from 0.68 to 0.94 (P<0.05). However, there were no significant differences in most variables measured by the DPA-1 between injured knee, uninjured knee, and control knee.
Conclusions
. The results revealed low validity of the DPA-1 tests for the evaluation of patients following ACL surgery, despite the reliability of these tests varied from moderate to very high. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Quality of Life in Patients With Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Medicina 2012, 48(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina48020015 - 18 Feb 2012
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 290
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life in persons affected by agerelated macular degeneration.
Material and Methods
. The study was performed in the Clinic of Ophthalmology, Hospital of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. A total of 140 [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life in persons affected by agerelated macular degeneration.
Material and Methods
. The study was performed in the Clinic of Ophthalmology, Hospital of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. A total of 140 patients completed the Visual Functioning Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) during this prospective study. The patients were divided into two groups: patients with age-related macular degeneration (70 patients) and control patients (70 patients).
Results
. There was a significant difference in the quality of life between groups (P<0.0001). Analyzing patients with age-related macular degeneration within the group (patients with monocular or binocular disorders), significant differences in near vision (P=0.003), far vision (P=0.04), color vision (P=0.01), and social functioning (P=0.02) were observed. Mental health (r=0.326, P=0.02), dependency (r=0.340, P=0.02), and role difficulties (r=0.355, P=0.01) were found to be significantly associated with general vision in the age-related macular degeneration group.
Conclusions
. Age-related macular degeneration appeared to have a great impact on the quality of life. General vision impairment caused by age-related macular degeneration affects patient’s mental health, dependency, and role difficulties. Full article
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