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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

Dementia With Lewy Bodies: the Principles of Diagnostics, Treatment, and Management

Department of Geriatrics, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Lithuania
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Medicina 2012, 48(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina48010001
Received: 7 June 2011 / Accepted: 29 January 2012 / Published: 3 February 2012
Dementia with Lewy bodies was first recognized as a separate entity about 30 years ago. The prevalence varies from 0% to 5% in the general population, and this disease accounts for 0% to 30.5% of all dementia cases. Dementia with Lewy bodies is considered the second most common cause of degenerative dementia after Alzheimer’s disease. The disease is characterized by alpha-synuclein immunoreactive protein deposits in both neurons and glial cells. The protein deposits are especially prominent in dopaminergic neurons, where they can be detected using conventional histological stains, such as hematoxylin and eosin, and are commonly referred to as Lewy bodies. The diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies is based on the presence of dementia as well as 2 of the following 3 core diagnostic features: 1) fluctuating cognition, 2) visual hallucinations, and 3) movement disorder. Diagnostic tests include laboratory data, structural and functional imaging, and electroencephalography. Differential diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies focuses on other later life dementia syndromes, other parkinsonian diseases (Parkinson’s disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration), and primary psychiatric illnesses. There is type 1b evidence to support treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors. Glutamatergic and dopaminergic therapies are used as well. Standard neuroleptics are contraindicated, and atypical agents should be used cautiously. Nonpharmacologic measures – therapeutic environment, psychological and social support, physical activity, behavioral management strategies, caregivers’ education and support, and different services – could be suggested.
Keywords: dementia with Lewy bodies; dementia syndrome; diagnostics; treatment; management dementia with Lewy bodies; dementia syndrome; diagnostics; treatment; management
MDPI and ACS Style

Macijauskienė, J.; Lesauskaitė, V. Dementia With Lewy Bodies: the Principles of Diagnostics, Treatment, and Management. Medicina 2012, 48, 1.

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