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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

Growth Factors, Their Receptors, Neuropeptide-Containing Innervation, and Matrix Metalloproteinases in the Proximal and Distal Ends of the Esophagus in Children With Esophageal Atresia

Institute of Anatomy and Anthropology, Riga Stradins University
Clinic of Children Surgery, Children Clinical University Hospital, Riga, Latvia
Institute of Anatomy, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Lithuania
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2011, 47(8), 453;
Received: 14 April 2009 / Accepted: 31 August 2011 / Published: 5 September 2011
Objective. The pathogenesis of esophageal atresia (EA) remains unknown despite a relatively high incidence of this anomaly in population affecting 1 newborn per 3000 live births. The aim of this study was to examine the relative occurrence of growth factors, their receptors, neuropeptide- containing innervation, and tissue-degradating enzymes – matrix metalloproteinases – in the proximal and distal parts of the esophagus with EA.
Materials and Methods
. A histopathological study was conducted on 15 patients with EA. Tissues were processed for NGFRp75, PGP 9.5, TGF-β, FGFR, VEGF, EGFR and MMP-2 by means of biotin-streptavidin immunohistochemistry.
. In the control and EA-affected distal esophageal specimens, numerous and abundant NGFR-containing structures were detected, while in the proximal part of the esophagus, a decrease in their number was observed in patients. PGP 9.5 also marked neuronal structures similarly. TGF-β was found only in occasional cells in the EA-affected esophageal specimens, while control material demonstrated moderate to numerous TGF-β-containing structures. Abundance of FGFR and only occasional appearance of VEGF-positive cells were found in both the control and EA-affected material. A moderate number of connective tissue cells in controls contained EGFR. Compared with controls, the number of MMP-2 expressing cells in the EA-affected tissues was decreased in the proximal esophagus.
A decrease in PGP 9.5-containing neuronal structures in the proximal esophagus supports insufficient innervation of this part of the organ in EA. A decrease in MMP-2 positive cells in the esophageal atresia-affected proximal esophagus indicates also a possible decrease of tissue adaptive and regenerative reactions. Low expression of TGF-β and almost the absence of EGFR in the EA-affected specimens may result in disturbances of cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation, indicating a significant role of these substances in morphopathogenesis of EA. FGFR and VEGF seem not to characterize EA pathogenesis.
Keywords: growth factors; immunohistochemistry; esophagus; atresia; children growth factors; immunohistochemistry; esophagus; atresia; children
MDPI and ACS Style

Pilmane, M.; Ozoliņa, L.; Ābola, Z.; Pētersons, A.; Popkovs, V.; Dabužinskienė, A.; Vētra, J. Growth Factors, Their Receptors, Neuropeptide-Containing Innervation, and Matrix Metalloproteinases in the Proximal and Distal Ends of the Esophagus in Children With Esophageal Atresia. Medicina 2011, 47, 453.

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