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Open AccessArticle

Growth Factors, Their Receptors, Neuropeptide-Containing Innervation, and Matrix Metalloproteinases in the Proximal and Distal Ends of the Esophagus in Children With Esophageal Atresia

1
Institute of Anatomy and Anthropology, Riga Stradins University
2
Clinic of Children Surgery, Children Clinical University Hospital, Riga, Latvia
3
Institute of Anatomy, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Lithuania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2011, 47(8), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina47080066
Received: 14 April 2009 / Accepted: 31 August 2011 / Published: 5 September 2011
Objective. The pathogenesis of esophageal atresia (EA) remains unknown despite a relatively high incidence of this anomaly in population affecting 1 newborn per 3000 live births. The aim of this study was to examine the relative occurrence of growth factors, their receptors, neuropeptide- containing innervation, and tissue-degradating enzymes – matrix metalloproteinases – in the proximal and distal parts of the esophagus with EA.
Materials and Methods
. A histopathological study was conducted on 15 patients with EA. Tissues were processed for NGFRp75, PGP 9.5, TGF-β, FGFR, VEGF, EGFR and MMP-2 by means of biotin-streptavidin immunohistochemistry.
Results
. In the control and EA-affected distal esophageal specimens, numerous and abundant NGFR-containing structures were detected, while in the proximal part of the esophagus, a decrease in their number was observed in patients. PGP 9.5 also marked neuronal structures similarly. TGF-β was found only in occasional cells in the EA-affected esophageal specimens, while control material demonstrated moderate to numerous TGF-β-containing structures. Abundance of FGFR and only occasional appearance of VEGF-positive cells were found in both the control and EA-affected material. A moderate number of connective tissue cells in controls contained EGFR. Compared with controls, the number of MMP-2 expressing cells in the EA-affected tissues was decreased in the proximal esophagus.
Conclusions.
A decrease in PGP 9.5-containing neuronal structures in the proximal esophagus supports insufficient innervation of this part of the organ in EA. A decrease in MMP-2 positive cells in the esophageal atresia-affected proximal esophagus indicates also a possible decrease of tissue adaptive and regenerative reactions. Low expression of TGF-β and almost the absence of EGFR in the EA-affected specimens may result in disturbances of cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation, indicating a significant role of these substances in morphopathogenesis of EA. FGFR and VEGF seem not to characterize EA pathogenesis.
Keywords: growth factors; immunohistochemistry; esophagus; atresia; children growth factors; immunohistochemistry; esophagus; atresia; children
MDPI and ACS Style

Pilmane, M.; Ozoliņa, L.; Ābola, Z.; Pētersons, A.; Popkovs, V.; Dabužinskienė, A.; Vētra, J. Growth Factors, Their Receptors, Neuropeptide-Containing Innervation, and Matrix Metalloproteinases in the Proximal and Distal Ends of the Esophagus in Children With Esophageal Atresia. Medicina 2011, 47, 453.

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