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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

Associations Between Chronic Pain and Depressive Symptoms in Patients With Trigeminal Neuralgia

1
Department of Radiology, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences
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Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences
3
Department of Psychiatrics, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences
4
Department of Pain, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Lithuania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2011, 47(7), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina47070055
Received: 11 June 2009 / Accepted: 27 July 2011 / Published: 1 August 2011
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a rare neuropathic disorder with an excruciating facial pain. The unpredictable pain attacks may result in anxiety and depression. The aim of this study was to determine and to evaluate the level of chronic facial pain and its association with the appearance of anxiety and depression.
Materials and Methods
. A total of 30 patients with TN and chronic facial pain (group A, 25 women and 5 men; mean age, 64.2±3.2 years) and 30 with atypical facial pain (group B, 26 women and 4 men; mean age, 64.8±1.9 years) were examined. A standardized diagnostic protocol was applied to all of them, which consisted of the following: 1) demographic data and estimation of overall pain on a visual analog scale; and 2) evaluation of emotional status using the Sheehan Disability Scale, Covi’s Anxiety Scale, and Beck Depression Inventory.
Results. The intensity of facial pain was much higher in the group A than the group B (89.7±2.5 versus 44.0±2.9, P<0.0001). Besides, the group A reported increased scores on the disability and anxiety symptom scales (17.4±1.3 and 9.7±0.3 vs. 6.4±0.7 and 3.6±0.1, respectively, P<0.0001). Severe (46.7%) or moderate (30%) levels of depression were documented in the majority of patients in the group A, while the group B did not show depressive symptoms (P<0.0001).
Conclusions.
Patients with TN and chronic facial pain had a significantly higher level of pain perception, and they presented the higher level for anxiety and depression than those with atypical facial pain. A multidisciplinary approach is needed for the additional assessment of emotional status of patients in order to improve the efficacy of treatment and patients’ quality of life.
Keywords: trigeminal neuralgia; chronic pain; depression trigeminal neuralgia; chronic pain; depression
MDPI and ACS Style

Mačianskytė, D.; Janužis, G.; Kubilius, R.; Adomaitienė, V.; Ščiupokas, A. Associations Between Chronic Pain and Depressive Symptoms in Patients With Trigeminal Neuralgia. Medicina 2011, 47, 386.

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