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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

Genetic Variation of the Human ACE and ACTN3 Genes and Their Association With Functional Muscle Properties in Lithuanian Elite Athletes

Department of Human and Medical Genetics, Vilnius University
Vilnius Pedagogical University, Lithuania
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2011, 47(5), 40;
Received: 1 October 2010 / Accepted: 18 May 2011 / Published: 23 May 2011
Background and Objective. Based on the results of many studies, the angiotensinconverting enzyme (ACE) and the α-actinin-3 (ACTN3) genes are considered strong candidate genes associated with human physical performance. On the other hand, the data regarding the association of the ACE I/D and ACTN3 R/X polymorphisms with human physical performance in different populations have been conflicting. The objective of our research was to evaluate the significance of these genetic variants on muscle performance phenotype in Lithuanian athletes.
Material and Methods
. The study involved 193 Lithuanian elite athletes and 250 controls from the general Lithuanian population. Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction and/ or restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Anthropometric measurements and muscle strength (grip strength and vertical jump) were measured.
. It was determined that ACE I/I and I/D genotypes were more frequent in the athlete group compared with the general Lithuanian population. The results of grip strength and vertical jum p were better in the athletes with the ACE I/I and ACTN3 X/X genotype compared with the athletes with ACE D/D and ACTN3 R/R, respectively.
Conclusions. The ACE I and ACTN3 X alleles determine speed and power for Lithuanian athletes. In line with other researchers, it can be confirmed that the absence of a functional ACTN3 in fast-twitch muscle fibers is compensated. Lithuanian athletes who are carriers of the ACE I/I and I/D as well as ACTN3 X/X and R/X genotypes have the potential to achieve better results in power-requiring sports; therefore, the analyzed polymorphisms of these genes might be used as the criteria for the sport type selection.
Keywords: ACE; ACTN3; physiological parameters; physical performance ACE; ACTN3; physiological parameters; physical performance
MDPI and ACS Style

Ginevičienė, V.; Pranculis, A.; Jakaitienė, A.; Milašius, K.; Kučinskas, V. Genetic Variation of the Human ACE and ACTN3 Genes and Their Association With Functional Muscle Properties in Lithuanian Elite Athletes. Medicina 2011, 47, 40.

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