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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

Antibiotic Resistance Mechanisms of Clinically Important Bacteria

Department of Microbiology, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences
Institute for Biomedical Research, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Lithuania
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2011, 47(3), 19;
Received: 11 May 2010 / Accepted: 17 March 2011 / Published: 22 March 2011
Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs is an increasing health and economic problem. Bacteria may be innate resistant or acquire resistance to one or few classes of antimicrobial agents. Acquired resistance arises from: (i) mutations in cell genes (chromosomal mutation) leading to cross-resistance, (ii) gene transfer from one microorganism to other by plasmids (conjugation or transformation), transposons (conjugation), integrons and bacteriophages (transduction). After a bacterium gains resistance genes to protect itself from various antimicrobial agents, bacteria can use several biochemical types of resistance mechanisms: antibiotic inactivation (interference with cell wall synthesis, e.g., β-lactams and glycopeptide), target modification (inhibition of protein synthesis, e.g., macrolides and tetracyclines; interference with nucleic acid synthesis, e.g., fluoroquinolones and rifampin), altered permeability (changes in outer membrane, e.g., aminoglycosides; new membrane transporters, e.g., chloramphenicol), and “bypass” metabolic pathway (inhibition of metabolic pathway, e.g., trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole).
Keywords: bacteria; antibiotics; resistance mechanisms bacteria; antibiotics; resistance mechanisms
MDPI and ACS Style

Giedraitienė, A.; Vitkauskienė, A.; Naginienė, R.; Pavilonis, A. Antibiotic Resistance Mechanisms of Clinically Important Bacteria. Medicina 2011, 47, 19.

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