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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

Comparison of the Properties of Brand-Name and Generic Nadifloxacin Creams

1
Laboratory of Drug Safety Management, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Josai University, Saitama, Japan
2
Laboratory of Biostatistics, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Josai University, Saitama, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2011, 47(11), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina47110089
Received: 5 March 2011 / Accepted: 30 November 2011 / Published: 5 December 2011
Background and Objective. In external preparations, types and ratios of additives are not necessarily the same for brand-name drugs and generic drugs. Thus, the physicochemical properties of preparations may differ despite the fact that they contain the same ingredients or additives. This study examined differences in brand-name and generic versions of nadifloxacin (NFX) creams.
Material and Methods. Three types of NFX creams (NFX-A, NFX-B, and NFX-C) were used. The viscosity of each preparation was determined, its yield value was calculated, and each preparation was subjected to light microscopy, x-ray powder diffraction, and near-infrared absorption spectroscopy.
Results
. Comparison of viscosity of different preparations revealed that NFX-B had a lower viscosity than NFX-A and NFX-C (14.5 vs. 24.6 and 17.9 Pa·s). NFX-B also had a lower yield value than NFX-A and NFX-C. Microscopy revealed that NFX-A and NFX-B had satisfactory emulsification although crystallization was observed with NFX-C. Near-infrared absorption spectroscopy revealed changes in the absorption spectra of NFX-B in comparison with those of NFX-A and NFX-C that were due to differences in water content and differences in fat and oil content.
Conclusions
. These findings confirmed that there were differences in the viscosity and flattening of NFX-A, NFX-B, and NFX-C. In addition, microscopy revealed differences in emulsification and it revealed the precipitation of NFX crystals in NFX-C. Near-infrared absorption spectroscopy revealed that differences in the type and amount of additives and water content in the creams had contributed to differences in the preparations.
Keywords: nadifloxacin; generic drug; viscosity; excipients nadifloxacin; generic drug; viscosity; excipients
MDPI and ACS Style

Inoue, Y.; Matsumoto, M.; Kimura, M.; Tanaka, T.; Kanamoto, I. Comparison of the Properties of Brand-Name and Generic Nadifloxacin Creams. Medicina 2011, 47, 89.

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