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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

Human Herpesvirus 6 and 7 Reactivation and Disease Activity in Multiple Sclerosis

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August Kirchenstein Institute of Microbiology and Virology, Riga Stradins University
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Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Riga Stradins University
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Department of Radiology, Riga Stradins University, Latvia
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2011, 47(10), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina47100075
Received: 13 September 2011 / Accepted: 31 October 2011 / Published: 5 November 2011
Recent studies have focused on the associations between human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7), and multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between HHV-6 and HHV-7 reactivation and MS disease activity, and interleukin 12 (IL-12) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) production.
Material and Methods
. The frequency of plasma viremia by nested polymerase chain reaction and transcription of viral mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of 14 relapsing/remitting (RR) and 14 secondary progressive (SP) MS patients were studied in comparison with clinical manifestation of the disease. Serum concentrations of cytokines IL-12 and TNF-α were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Results
. Plasma samples from 25 of the 28 MS patients with estimated latent/persistent HHV-6 and/or HHV-7 infection were examined during relapse and remission/relative remission. HHV-6 reactivation was found in 4 of the 7 RRMS and 4 of the 7 SPMS patients, and HHV-7 reactivation was identified in 3 of the 7 RRMS and 1 of the 7 SPMS patients (all in relapse). In 2 of the 3 RRMS patients without viremia in relapse, HHV-6 mRNA transcription was detected. In RRMS and SPMS patients with active HHV-6 and HHV-7 infection in relapse, the serum concentrations of IL-12 and TNF-α were significantly higher than in those with latent virus infection.
Conclusions. HHV-6 and HHV-7 reactivation could be implicated in the exacerbation of MS via activation of Th1 lymphocyte subsets.
Keywords: multiple sclerosis; human herpesvirus 6; human herpesvirus 7; plasma viremia; interleukin 12; tumor necrosis factor α multiple sclerosis; human herpesvirus 6; human herpesvirus 7; plasma viremia; interleukin 12; tumor necrosis factor α
MDPI and ACS Style

Nora-Krukle, Z.; Chapenko, S.; Logina, I.; Millers, A.; Platkajis, A.; Murovska, M. Human Herpesvirus 6 and 7 Reactivation and Disease Activity in Multiple Sclerosis. Medicina 2011, 47, 75.

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