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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

The Effect of Heating and Cooling on Time Course of Voluntary and Electrically Induced Muscle Force Variation

Sports and Movement Science Centre, Department of Applied Physiology and Physiotherapy, Lithuanian Academy of Physical Education
Physical Education and Health Centre, Department of Physical Education, Kaunas University of Technology
Department of Physiology, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Lithuania
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2011, 47(1), 6;
Received: 24 March 2009 / Accepted: 6 January 2011 / Published: 11 January 2011
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of heating and cooling on time course of voluntary and electrically induced muscle force variation.
Material and Methods. Ten volunteers performed 50 maximal voluntary and electrically induced contractions of the knee extensors at an angle of 120 degrees under the control conditions and after passive lower body heating and cooling in the control, heating, and cooling experiments. Peak torque, torque variation, and half-relaxation time were assessed during the exercise.
Results. Passive lower body heating increased muscle and core temperatures, while cooling lowered muscle temperature, but did not affect core temperature. We observed significantly lower muscle fatigue during voluntary contraction compared with electrically induced contractions. Body heating (opposite to cooling) increased involuntarily induced muscle force, but caused greater electrically induced muscle fatigue. In the middle of the exercise, the coefficient of correlation for electrically induced muscle torque decreased significantly as compared with the beginning of the exercise, while during maximal voluntary contractions, this relation for torque remained significant until the end of the exercise.
Conclusion. It was shown that time course of voluntary contraction was more stable than in electrically induced contractions.
Keywords: thermoregulation; muscle fatigue; electrical stimulation; motor variability thermoregulation; muscle fatigue; electrical stimulation; motor variability
MDPI and ACS Style

Brazaitis, M.; Skurvydas, A.; Vadopalas, K.; Daniusevičiūtė, L.; Senikienė, Ž. The Effect of Heating and Cooling on Time Course of Voluntary and Electrically Induced Muscle Force Variation. Medicina 2011, 47, 6.

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