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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

The coagulation system changes in patients with chronic heart failure

1
Institute of Cardiology, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences
2
Department of Biochemistry, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Lithuania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2010, 46(9), 642; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina46090091
Received: 27 June 2008 / Accepted: 6 September 2010 / Published: 11 September 2010
Though heart failure can mainly be caused by systolic or diastolic dysfunction, the impairments of the neurohormonal, immune, and hemostatic systems are observed too. Therefore, it is not easy to determine etiology of the syndrome. Parameters that can be helpful to predict chronic heart failure, to evaluate its course and the risk of complications are still being searched. The aim of this article is to review the recent studies in order to find the links between the coagulation system and the development of chronic heart failure. Stress is a key factor for the development of most diseases including chronic heart failure too. Signals of emotional and physical stress via particular structures trigger an increase in concentrations of the following hormones: noradrenaline, renin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, vasopressin. It is proved that it causes the disorders of the coagulation system: an increase in the following factors of plasma coagulation (fibrinogen, VII, VIII, fibrinopeptide A, thrombinantithrombin complex), fibrinolysis (D-dimer), endothelium (interleukin 1, endothelin 1, vascular cell adhesion molecules, endothelial growth factor), platelet activity (von Willebrand factor, intercellular adhesion molecules, platelet factor 4, P-selectin, thromboxane A2, thromboglobulin, CD63P) and cytokines (tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 6) and decrease in E-selectin. The role of particular coagulation factors for the development of chronic heart failure has not been understood yet. Thus, it is necessary to carry out further studies.
Keywords: chronic heart failure; coagulation system; fibrinogen; platelets; endothelium chronic heart failure; coagulation system; fibrinogen; platelets; endothelium
MDPI and ACS Style

Mongirdienė, A.; Kuršvietienė, L.; Kašauskas, A. The coagulation system changes in patients with chronic heart failure. Medicina 2010, 46, 642.

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