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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

Parental cigarette smoking and the risk of congenital heart septal defects

Institute of Cardiology, Medical Academy, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Lithuania
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2010, 46(9), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina46090090
Received: 9 March 2009 / Accepted: 6 September 2010 / Published: 11 September 2010
The objective of this study was to determine the association between parental cigarette smoking and the risk of congenital heart septal defects in Kaunas infant population in 1995–2005.
Material and methods. An epidemiological case-control study was conducted. The study comprised 261 newborns with congenital heart septal defects (cases) and 1122 randomly selected newborns without any defects (controls), born in Kaunas city during 1995–2005. Information on potential risk factors of newborns’ health was collected through an interview with parents using standardized questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between parental smoking and septal defects while controlling for possible confounders.
Results
. According to the validated registry, 371 newborns with congenital heart malformations were born in Kaunas city during 1995–2005; 70.3% of cases had ventricular and/or atrial septal defects. After adjustment for possible confounding factors – maternal education, social status, marital status – a statistically significant relationship was observed between parental smoking and congenital heart septal defects. Parental, maternal, and paternal smoking was significantly associated with a 2.27-fold (adjusted OR=2.27; 95% CI, 1.49–3.46), 2.2-fold (adjusted OR=2.20; 95% CI, 1.01–4.79), and 1.45-fold (adjusted OR=1.45; 95% CI, 1.03–2.03) increased risk of defects if compared with nonsmoking parents.
Conclusions.
According to the results of our study, parental smoking was significantly associated with an increased risk of congenital heart septal defects in infants.
Keywords: case-control study; smoking; pregnancy; septal defects case-control study; smoking; pregnancy; septal defects
MDPI and ACS Style

Kučienė, R.; Dulskienė, V. Parental cigarette smoking and the risk of congenital heart septal defects. Medicina 2010, 46, 635.

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