Next Article in Journal
The usage of blood components in obstetrics
Previous Article in Journal
Alzheimer’s disease: a molecular mechanism, new hypotheses, and therapeutic strategies
Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

The level of endotoxins in hemodialysis water and dialysate in Lithuanian hemodialysis centers

Department of Nephrology, Kaunas University of Medicine, Lithuania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2010, 46(8), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina46080080
Received: 15 June 2010 / Accepted: 6 August 2010 / Published: 11 August 2010
The composition and quality of the dialysis fluid play an important role in the modulation of dialysis-related complications. During hemodialysis, patient’s blood has a contact with dialysate through a semipermeable membrane. Bacterial endotoxins can pass through the membrane pores into the patient’s blood and cause a silent chronic microinflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the level of endotoxins in hemodialysis water and dialysate in Lithuanian hemodialysis centers. Dialysis water (n=50) and dialysate (n=50) were collected from 91% (n=50) of all hemodialysis centers. The presence of bacterial endotoxins was evaluated using a sensitive Limulus amebocyte lysate test, which detects intact lipopolysaccharides. The level of endotoxins was lower than 0.25 EU/mL in 43 (86%) dialysis water samples and in 46 (92%) dialysate samples, and complied with the recommendations of the European Pharmacopoeia and the European Best Practice Guidelines for pure dialysis fluid. The dialysate of 39 (78%) Lithuanian hemodialysis centers complied with the definition of an ultrapure dialysis fluid. The water and dialysate were of insufficient quality in 14% and in 8% of Lithuanian hemodialysis centers, respectively, and this could be improved by the establishment of routine investigation of endotoxins.
Keywords: endotoxin; hemodialysis; water; dialysate; Limulus amebocyte lysate test endotoxin; hemodialysis; water; dialysate; Limulus amebocyte lysate test
MDPI and ACS Style

Skarupskienė, I.; Bumblytė, I.A.; Tamošaitis, D.; Venterienė, J.; Kuzminskis, V. The level of endotoxins in hemodialysis water and dialysate in Lithuanian hemodialysis centers. Medicina 2010, 46, 556.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop