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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

The influence of thoracic epidural anesthesia on liver hemodynamics in patients under general anesthesia

1
Department of Anesthesiology, Kaunas University of Medicine
2
Department of Surgery, Kaunas University of Medicine, Lithuania
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2010, 46(7), 465; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina46070067
Received: 2 November 2009 / Accepted: 8 July 2010 / Published: 13 July 2010
Background and objective. Hepatic hypoperfusion is regarded as an important factor in the pathophysiology of perioperative liver injury. Although thoracic epidural anesthesia is a widely used technique, limited data are available about the effects on hepatic blood flow with blockade restricted to thoracic segments in humans. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia on hepatic blood flow under general anesthesia in humans.
Material and methods. In 40 patients under general anesthesia, we assessed hepatic blood flow using plasma disappearance rate of indocyanine green (PDRICG) as a simple noninvasive method before and after induction of thoracic epidural anesthesia. The epidural catheter was inserted at the Th7/8 or Th8/9, and 1% lidocaine at a mean (range) dose of 8 (6–10) mL was injected. Ephedrine bolus was given to patients who demonstrated a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure below 60 mm Hg after induction of thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA-E group). Other patients did not receive any catecholamines during the study period (TEA group). Ten patients who did not undergo TEA served as controls (control group).
Results. In 7 patients, administration of ephedrine was necessary to avoid a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure below 60 mm Hg. Thus, the TEA-E group consisted of 7 patients and TEA group of 33. In the TEA group, thoracic epidural anesthesia was associated with a mean 2.3% min–1 decrease in PDRICG (P<0.05). In the TEA-E group, all seven patients showed a 2.2% min–1decrease in PDRICG (P<0.05). Patients in the control group showed a mean 1.1% min–1 increase in PDRICG (P<0.05). In contrast to hepatic blood flow, cardiac output was not affected by thoracic epidural anesthesia.
Conclusions. In humans, thoracic epidural anesthesia is associated with a decrease in hepatic blood flow. Thoracic epidural anesthesia combined with ephedrine bolus was found to result in further decrease in hepatic blood flow.
Keywords: liver; thoracic epidural anesthesia; indocyanine green; plasma disappearance rate; regional perfusion liver; thoracic epidural anesthesia; indocyanine green; plasma disappearance rate; regional perfusion
MDPI and ACS Style

Trepenaitis, D.; Pundzius, J.; Macas, A. The influence of thoracic epidural anesthesia on liver hemodynamics in patients under general anesthesia. Medicina 2010, 46, 465.

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