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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

Development and validation of a notational system to study the offensive process in football

Department of Sport Sciences, Exercise & Health, University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal
Centre for Research in Sport, Health and Human Movement, Vila Real, Portugal
Department of Methodology of the Behavioural Sciences, Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2010, 46(6), 401;
Received: 17 May 2010 / Accepted: 7 June 2010 / Published: 12 June 2010
The most striking change within football development is the application of science to its problems and in particular the use of increasingly sophisticated technology that, supported by scientifi c data, allows us to establish a “code of reading” the reality of the game. Therefore, this study describes the process of the development and validation of an ad hoc system of categorization, which allows the different methods of offensive game in football and the interaction to be analyzed. Therefore, through an exploratory phase of the study, we identified 10 vertebrate criteria and the respective behaviors observed for each of these criteria. We heard a panel of five experts with the purpose of a content validation. The resulting instrument is characterized by a combination of fi eld formats and systems of categories. The reliability of the instrument was calculated by the intraobserver agreement, and values above 0.95 for all criteria were achieved. Two FC Barcelona games were coded and analyzed, which allowed the detection of various Tpatterns. The results show that the instrument serves the purpose for which it was developed and can provide important information for the understanding of game interaction in football.
Keywords: match analysis; football; T-patterns; observational methodology match analysis; football; T-patterns; observational methodology
MDPI and ACS Style

Sarmento, H.; Anguera, T.; Campaniço, J.; Leitão, J. Development and validation of a notational system to study the offensive process in football. Medicina 2010, 46, 401.

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