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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

Factors determining age-related macular degeneration: a current view

Department of Ophthalmology, Kaunas University of Medicine
Department of Cardiac Pathology, Institute of Cardiology, Kaunas University of Medicine
Laboratory of Neuroscience, Institute for Biomedical Research, Kaunas University of Medicine, Lithuania
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2010, 46(2), 89;
Received: 1 September 2009 / Accepted: 5 February 2010 / Published: 10 February 2010
Age-related macular degeneration affects the macula and is the leading cause of significant and irreversible central visual loss. It is the most common cause of visual loss in people older than 60 years. The pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration is complex and not completely understood. It is thought that age-related macular degeneration has a multifactorial etiology, the development of which may be caused by interrelation of environmental and genetic factors and body characteristics. In this article, risk factors such as age, gender, cigarette smoking, color of the iris, nutrition, body mass index, oxidative stress, and genetic factors (complement factor H gene, Apo E gene, and others) are reviewed. Here, choroidal neovascularization process, in which hypoxia, inflammatory process, and proteolytic enzymes play a determinant role, is discussed. Considerable attention is paid to genetic polymorphism of matrix metalloproteinases, especially to matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, respectively gelatinases A and B, also to matrix metalloproteinase 9.
Keywords: age-related macular degeneration; risk factors; gene; neovascularization; matrix metallopro teinases age-related macular degeneration; risk factors; gene; neovascularization; matrix metallopro teinases
MDPI and ACS Style

Liutkevičienė, R.; Lesauskaitė, V.; Ašmonienė, V.; Žaliūnienė, D.; Jašinskas, V. Factors determining age-related macular degeneration: a current view. Medicina 2010, 46, 89.

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