Next Article in Journal
Markers of endothelial dysfunction after cardiac surgery: Soluble forms of vascular-1 and intercellular-1 adhesion molecules
Previous Article in Journal
The value of transcutaneous method of bilirubin measurement in newborn population with the risk of ABO hemolytic disease
Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessReview

Barriers to cancer pain management: A review of empirical research

Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Department of Philosophy and Social Sciences, Faculty of Public Health, Kaunas University of Medicine, Lithuania
The Multidisciplinary Pain Center, The Danish National Hospital (Rigshospitalet), Denmark
Faculty of Nursing, Kaunas University of Medicine, Lithuania
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2009, 45(6), 427;
Received: 16 October 2008 / Accepted: 4 June 2009 / Published: 9 June 2009
Patient-, physician-, and health care system-related barriers of cancer pain management in patients with malignant diseases are a recognized and widely investigated issue. The purpose of this review is to summarize the main findings of empirical research on these barriers in the literature. The most significant patientrelated barriers were patient reluctance to report pain and adhere to treatment recommendations. Besides that, cognitive, affective, and sensory patient-related barriers to cancer pain management with opioid analgesics have been studied using quantitative and qualitative research methods. The Barriers Questionnaire and its shortened and modified versions were the most commonly used instruments in the context of research on patient-related barriers to cancer pain management. The most prominent physicianrelated barriers were insufficient physicians’ knowledge about cancer pain management, inadequate patterns of pain assessment, and inadequate opioid prescription. The methodologies used to conduct the majority of the studies on physician-related barriers were weak. Nevertheless, physician knowledge of pain management guidelines, the quality of pain assessment and opioid prescription have been shown to be obviously better in a few Western countries. Institutional and health care system-related barriers were relevant only in countries with restrictive opioid prescription regulations. The evaluation of the influence of cultural-social-economical background on cancer pain management could probably help to obtain better insight into the problems of unrelieved cancer pain.
Keywords: cancer pain management; barriers; patients; physicians; medical ethics cancer pain management; barriers; patients; physicians; medical ethics
MDPI and ACS Style

Jacobsen, R.; Liubarskienë, Z.; Møldrup, C.; Christrup, L.; SJøgren, P.; Samsanavičienë, J. Barriers to cancer pain management: A review of empirical research. Medicina 2009, 45, 427.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop