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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

Candidemia in an intensive care unit

1
Department of Intensive Care, Kaunas University of Medicine
2
Kaunas University of Medicine
3
Laboratory of Microbiology, Kaunas University of Medicine, Lithuania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2009, 45(5), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina45050044
Received: 9 June 2008 / Accepted: 21 October 2008 / Published: 26 October 2008
Candidemia is becoming more actual because of better survival of even critically ill patients, wide use of antimicrobials, and increased numbers of invasive procedures and manipulations. Diagnosis of candidemia remains complicated, and costs of treatment and mortality rates are increasing.
Objective. To evaluate the pathogens of candidemia, risk factors and their influence on outcome.
Material and methods
. Data of 41 patients with positive blood culture for Candida spp., who were treated in the intensive care units at the Hospital of Kaunas University of Medicine, were analyzed retrospectively.
Results. Candidemia was caused by Candida albicans (C. albicans) in 48.8% (n=20) of patients and by non-albicans Candida in 51.2% (n=21) of patients. The main cause of candidemia was C. albicans in 2004 (83.3%, n=5), but in 2005 (63.6%, n=7), in 2006 (57.1%, n=4), and in 2007 (52.9%, n=9), the main cause was non-albicans Candida spp. The number of candidemia cases caused by C. albicans was decreased in 2005, 2006, and 2007 as compared with 2004, and the number of candidemia caused by non-albicans Candida spp. was decreased, respectively (P<0.05). More than 65% (n=34) of patients had severe disease (P<0.05). Lethal outcome was recorded in 58.5% of patients with candidemia. Mechanical ventilation was used in 76.9% (n=20) and urinary bladder catheter in 72.1% (n=19) of non-survivors and in 23.1% (n=6) and 26.9% (n=7) of survivors, respectively (P<0.05).
Conclusions
. There is an increase in the prevalence of candidemia in the intensive care units during the 4-year period; half of candidemia cases were caused by non-albicans Candida spp., and patients with candidemia caused by non-albicans Candida spp. are at higher risk of mortality. Therefore, for the empirical treatment of septic conditions in an intensive care unit, when invasive fungal infection is suspected, we recommend using an antifungal agent of non-azole class until a pathogen of candidemia is determined. Severe disease is evaluated as a risk factor for candidemia. Patients with oncological diseases are at significantly higher risk for candidemia caused by non-albicans Candida spp. Use of mechanical ventilation and urinary bladder catheter is a risk factor for lethal outcome.
Keywords: candidemia; risk factors; lethal outcome candidemia; risk factors; lethal outcome
MDPI and ACS Style

Adukauskienė, D.; Kinderytė, A.; Dambrauskienė, A.; Vitkauskienė, A. Candidemia in an intensive care unit. Medicina 2009, 45, 351.

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