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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: possibilities of early diagnostics

Department of Clinical and Organizational Psychology
Institute of Public Health, Vilnius University, Lithuania
University of Roma “La Sapienza”, Italy
Department of General Psychology, Vilnius University
Department of Psychology, Mykolas Romeris University, Lithuania
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2009, 45(10), 764;
Received: 22 December 2007 / Accepted: 5 October 2009 / Published: 10 October 2009
The present study aimed at analyzing the possibilities of early diagnostics of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder in toddlers and preschool children. Parents and caregivers from children day care centers provided information about 863 children (mean age, 47.18 months; 410 girls and 453 boys). The methods used in the study were as follows: Child Behavior Checklist/1½-5 (CBCL), Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF), and clinical questionnaire for evaluation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. The study consisted of two stages: 1) screening of the emotional and behavioral problems of children based on parental and caregiver-teachers’ reports; 2) clinical interview with parents of children at risk for attentiondeficit/ hyperactivity disorder as measured by empirical ratings of attention hyperactivity symptoms. Results revealed that according to parental ratings, attention and hyperactivity problems are related to children’s age. According to caregiver-teachers’ ratings, boys were rated as having more problems of attention and hyperactivity than girls. Based on the results from the first stage, children at risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder were analyzed further. Case study analysis showed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in these children to be a part of overall pattern characterized by behavioral, emotional, and other problems. The quantitative as well as qualitative analysis provides the evidence for a high comorbidity of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder and other emotional and behavioral problems in early childhood. Study showed that comprehensive clinical assessment is necessary for early diagnostics of ADHD.
Keywords: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; preschool children; early diagnostics; multidimensional statistical approach attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; preschool children; early diagnostics; multidimensional statistical approach
MDPI and ACS Style

Barkauskienė, R.; Bongarzoni, A.D.; Bieliauskaitė, R.; Jusienė, R.; Raižienė, S. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: possibilities of early diagnostics. Medicina 2009, 45, 764.

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