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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: possibilities of early diagnostics

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Department of Clinical and Organizational Psychology
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Institute of Public Health, Vilnius University, Lithuania
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University of Roma “La Sapienza”, Italy
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Department of General Psychology, Vilnius University
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Department of Psychology, Mykolas Romeris University, Lithuania
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2009, 45(10), 764; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina45100099
Received: 22 December 2007 / Accepted: 5 October 2009 / Published: 10 October 2009
The present study aimed at analyzing the possibilities of early diagnostics of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder in toddlers and preschool children. Parents and caregivers from children day care centers provided information about 863 children (mean age, 47.18 months; 410 girls and 453 boys). The methods used in the study were as follows: Child Behavior Checklist/1½-5 (CBCL), Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF), and clinical questionnaire for evaluation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. The study consisted of two stages: 1) screening of the emotional and behavioral problems of children based on parental and caregiver-teachers’ reports; 2) clinical interview with parents of children at risk for attentiondeficit/ hyperactivity disorder as measured by empirical ratings of attention hyperactivity symptoms. Results revealed that according to parental ratings, attention and hyperactivity problems are related to children’s age. According to caregiver-teachers’ ratings, boys were rated as having more problems of attention and hyperactivity than girls. Based on the results from the first stage, children at risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder were analyzed further. Case study analysis showed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in these children to be a part of overall pattern characterized by behavioral, emotional, and other problems. The quantitative as well as qualitative analysis provides the evidence for a high comorbidity of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder and other emotional and behavioral problems in early childhood. Study showed that comprehensive clinical assessment is necessary for early diagnostics of ADHD.
Keywords: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; preschool children; early diagnostics; multidimensional statistical approach attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; preschool children; early diagnostics; multidimensional statistical approach
MDPI and ACS Style

Barkauskienė, R.; Bongarzoni, A.D.; Bieliauskaitė, R.; Jusienė, R.; Raižienė, S. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: possibilities of early diagnostics. Medicina 2009, 45, 764.

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