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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
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Coffee consumption and type 2 diabetes mellitus

Institute of Endocrinology, Kaunas University of Medicine, Lithuania
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Medicina 2009, 45(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina45010009
Received: 18 October 2007 / Accepted: 6 January 2009 / Published: 11 January 2009
The aim of the study was to determine the association between coffee consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Material and methods. A case-control study included 234 cases with newly confirmed diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and 468 controls who were free of the disease in 2001. Cases and controls were matched by gender and age (±5 years). Data on age, education level, occupation status, marital status, family history of diabetes, lifestyle (dietary habits, smoking habits, coffee consumption, alcohol consumption, physical activity), and stress were collected via a questionnaire. Variables were retained in models as confounders when their inclusion changed the value of the OR by more than 10% in any exposure category. Conditional logistic regression to compute the odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI), and P for trend was used.
Results
. After adjustment for possible confounders (family history of diabetes, body mass index, eating speed, morning exercise, cigarette smoking, years of education, and stress), a statistically significant relationship was observed between type 2 diabetes mellitus and coffee consumption. Individuals consuming four or more cups of coffee per day were at lower risk of 2 diabetes mellitus (OR=0.51; 95% CI, 0.27–0.97) compared to those who consumed one or less than one cup of coffee per day.
Conclusion
. Habitual coffee consumption of four or more cups per day might be related to the lower risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Keywords: coffee consumption; type 2 diabetes mellitus; case-control study coffee consumption; type 2 diabetes mellitus; case-control study
MDPI and ACS Style

Radzevičienė, L.; Ostrauskas, R. Coffee consumption and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Medicina 2009, 45, 61.

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