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Medicina is published by MDPI from Volume 54 Issue 1 (2018). Articles in this Issue were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence. Articles are hosted by MDPI on as a courtesy and upon agreement with Lithuanian Medical Association, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, and Vilnius University.
Open AccessArticle

Nosocomial infections in the pediatric intensive care units in Lithuania

Institute of Hygiene, Vilnius
Unit of Pediatric Intensive Care, Clinic of Children’s Diseases, Hospital of Kaunas University of Medicine
Department of Children’s Diseases, Kaunas University of Medicine, Lithuania
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicina 2009, 45(1), 29;
Received: 10 January 2008 / Accepted: 6 January 2009 / Published: 11 January 2009
Objective. The aim of the study was to collect the data on incidence rates, pathogens of nosocomial infections, and antimicrobials for treatment of nosocomial infections.
Material and methods
. Data were collected between March 2003 and December 2005 in five pediatric intensive care units using a modified patient-based HELICS protocol. Nosocomial infection was identified using the Centers for Disease Control definitions. All patients aged between 1 month and 18 years that stayed in the units for more than 48 hours were eligible for inclusion in this study.
Results. A total of 1239 patient admissions and 7601 patient-days were evaluated. In 169 children (13.6%), 186 nosocomial infections occurred. The incidence density was 24.5 per 1000 patient-days, the incidence rate – 15.0 per 100 admissions. The highest incidence density was observed in the 6–12-year age group (31.2 per 1000 bed-days). Nosocomial infection rates per 1000 device-days were 28.8 for ventilator-associated pneumonia, 7.7 – for bloodstream infection, and 3.4 – for urinary tract infection. The most common site of infection was respiratory tract (58.8%). Secondary bacteremia developed in 18 (10.6%) patients. Haemophilus influenzae (20.1%), Acinetobacter spp. (14.2%), and Staphylococcus aureus (17.6%) were the most frequently isolated microorganisms. The most common antimicrobials used were first- and second-generation cephalosporins 74 (31.0%) and broad-spectrum penicillins 70 (29.3%).
. In Lithuanian pediatric intensive care units, the incidence rates of nosocomial infections were comparable to the available data from other countries, except for the ventilatorassociated pneumonia rate, which was relatively high. H. influenzae, Acinetobacter spp., and S. aureus were the most prevalent pathogens. The first- and second-generation cephalosporins and broad-spectrum penicillins were the most common antimicrobials in the treatment of nosocomial infections
Keywords: nosocomial infection; pediatric intensive care; incidence rate; risk factors nosocomial infection; pediatric intensive care; incidence rate; risk factors
MDPI and ACS Style

Ašembergienė, J.; Gurskis, V.; Kėvalas, R.; Valintėlienė, R. Nosocomial infections in the pediatric intensive care units in Lithuania. Medicina 2009, 45, 29.

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